Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
This chapter focuses on relationships between the three leading European agencies—Havas, Reuters and the Wolffsbüro (later CTC)—with each other, their governments and their clients. The status and organisation of the companies owning them are reviewed. The careers of agency personalities, especially Sigmund Engländer (1823–1902), a key player in inter-European agency negotiations until the 1890s, are highlighted. How independent of governments did agencies prove?
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Havas kept the services it sent to Augsburg, Wurtzburg and Stuttgart, and, in the Habsburg empire, to Vienna and Trieste.
Gold and iron, Bismarck, Bleichroder and the Building of the German Empire, Knopf, New York, 1977, p. 264.
D. Read, op. cit., 51?
A. Lefebure, op. cit., p. 142.
Telegraphen Korrespondenz Bureau.
Bullier represented Havas and S. Engländer, Reuters.
A.N. 5 AR 411.; P. Frédérix, op. cit., p. 103. D. Read’s history of Reuters barely mentions this joint-purse agreement.
D. Read, op. cit., p. 55. (With changes, noted below.)
It was not until 1905 that US agencies began to set foot in the “territories” the European agencies assigned to one another. In 1874–75, when the first cable link—Europe/Latin America (Brazil)—became operational, Havas was assigned this continent.
D. Read, op. cit., p. 66.
Prussia led the invasion of France by German troops; German unity was declared in Versailles, France, in January 1871.
D. Read, op. cit, p. 58.
Charles Rouvier; Rapport à W. Waddington, président du conseil, 16 novembre 1879. Papiers Waddington, VI. A.M.A.E.
Havas-Paris to Havas-Tunis, 21 March 1892. 5 AR 142. A.N.
Havas-Paris to Havas-Athens 10 October 1889; Havas-Paris to Havas-Sofia, 4 April 1890. 5. AR 135. A.N.
First shown in September 1855 as one of a series entitled Panorama of the Plateau of Sebastopol in Eleven Parts in a London exhibition.
Many of the 500 war correspondents covering the northern, Unionist forces used the telegraph (cf. Schwarzlose, vol. i, and Gramling). From the war’s outset, the US government used the APs telegraph network; the latter was better equipped or functioned better than its own. Newspapers on both sides of the war criticised the failings and exaggerations of telegraph despatches. Dissatisfied, newspapers in the South founded the PA of the Confederate States (1863); Cf. J. r Andrews, The North reports the Civil War, Pittsburgh UP, 1955: The South reports the Civil War, Princeton UP, 1970.
W. H. Russell covered the war for The Times, which also had a correspondent covering the Confederate war effort. The Times coverage was by no means dispassionate. The chapter of The History of ‘The Times ’, vol ii., on “the American Civil War” begins: “Englishmen in the mid-nineteenth century were neither close nor sympathetic students of American history”, p. 359.
£20 UK pounds a word or 55 gold francs per word, when Auguste Havas in a good restaurant in Paris paid five francs for a meal.
From Queretaro in Mexico, the news of the execution, on 19 June 1867, of the Austrian prince Maximilian, emperor of Mexico, backed by the French emperor Napoleon III, was sent by boat and telegraph; it reached Europe on I July.
D. Read, op. cit., p. 32.
In the 1990s, in a letter, P. Job, the Reuters’ chief executive, referred to a “Rorke’s drift”.
The History of ‘The Times’ devotes a chapter to it, as it did to the US Civil War.
Reuters kept personal files on staff for decades. They relate primarily to professional issues.
Reuters did not cover British provincial news; from 1868, the Press Association, formed by British provincial newspapers, did so and entered into a news-exchange agreement with Reuters.
Some speak of a division of the world like the Yalta agreement of 1945 or the division of the non-Christian world between Spain and Portugal in 1494.
Its venture into advertising in the 1890s was not a success; Engländer was involved.
G. Storey, Reuter’s century, London, Max Parrish, 1951; D. Read, The power of news, Oxford: OUP, 1992, 1999.
Henri Georges Stephane Adolphe Opper de Blowitz (1825–1903), the Bohemian and Jewish journalist, employed by The Times (1873–1902).
Cited in M. Palmer, Homo informans. Les news au fil des millénaires, Paris, éditions de l’Amandier, ii, p. 94.
W. Hausler: Sigmund Engländer : Kritiker des Vormärz, Satiriker der Wiener Revolution und Freund Friedrich Hebbels, 1983—Burg-Verlag.
In 1849 a new and stronger press law was introduced; press censorship continued in Austria until the proclamation of a republic in 1918.
Not found in the BNF, Paris.
S. Englander, 4 rue Pigalle, to “M. Lamartinière, le directeur”. A.N. F18. 274 and 543–550.
S. Engländer, Gesichte der französischen Arbeiter Associatonen, Hambourg, 1864. Walter Benjamin frequently refers to this in Paris, capitale du XIXè siècle, Paris, Les éditions du Cerf, 2009.
Paris: Les éditions du Cerf, 2009.
1864, the year the international association of workers—the First International—was founded.
Op. cit., pp. 294–5.
Paris, Picard, 1851. (Delvau was the secretary of the revolutionary leader, Ledru-Rollin).
Examples taken from W. Benjamin, op. cit., p. 115, 197.
D. Read, op. cit., p. 64.
The Italian agency, Stefani, was half owned by Havas from 1867. Franco-Italian relations were fraught in the 1880s because of their rivalry in North Africa. Bismarck and Crispi considered the commission German and Italian agencies paid the French agency “humiliating”. H. Friedlander, heading Stefani, felt likewise. Cf. M. Palmer, “L’Agence Havas et Bismarck, L’échec de la triple alliance télégraphique (1887–1889)”, Revue d’Histoire diplomatique, juillet-déc.,1976, n°s 3–4; S. Lepri, (1999). Informazione e potere in un secolo di storia italiana. L’Agenzia Stefani da Cavour a Mussolini.
D. Read, op. cit., and Cf. S. Potter, News and the British world, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 2003.
S. Engländer to H. de Reuter, 18 and 20 January 1889. Reuters archive, London.
Havas-Paris to Havas-Vienna, 25 April 1889. 5 AR 148 A.N. Paris. Rosenstein, for the German agency Continental, told Reuters that Friedlander of Stefani, “accredited” by Crispi, sought to sever ties with Havas; Rosenstein proposed that “the agencies of Berlin, London, Vienna” provide Stefani with a service of international news. Rosenstein (Continental) to Reuters, 2 April 1889. Reuters archive, London.
S. Engländer to H. de Reuter, 15 January 1889. Reuters archive, London.
Emil d’Erlanger, of the German Jewish banking family, headed a consortium that, in 1868, with PJR got from the French government the right to float a French cable company. Known in France as an unscrupulous speculator, prominent in risk-capital ventures that transformed the structure of a series of major companies, it was he who enabled the E. Lebey/H. Housaye tandem to head the reorganised Havas in 1879. Was he also the capitalist who funded a Havas attempt to acquire Reuters?
Storey, op. cit., p. 114.
Havas-Paris to Havas-Vienna, 28 April 1889. 5 AR 148 A.N., Paris.
- Reuter’s S. Engländer and Intra-European Agency Negotiations, 1847–90s
Michael B. Palmer
- Chapter 2