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Über dieses Buch

This textbook teaches how to design working systems at very high frequencies. It is designed to introduce computer engineers to the design of extremely high speed digital systems. Combining an intuitive, physics-based approach to electromagnetics with a focus on solving realistic problems, the author presents concepts that are essential for computer and electrical engineers today. The book emphasizes an intuitive approach to electromagnetics, and then uses this foundation to show the reader how both physical phenomena can cause signals to propagate incorrectly; and how to solve commonly encountered issues. Emphasis is placed on real problems that the author has encountered in his professional career, integrating problem-solving strategies and real signal-integrity case studies throughout the presentation. Students are challenged to think about managing complex design projects and implementing successful engineering and manufacturing processes. Each chapter includes exercises to test concepts introduced.



Chapter 1. The Basics: Charge, Energy, Time, and Distance

The concept of signal integrity begins with the basics – charge, energy, time, and distance. Electrical and computer engineering students already know a lot about these basic building blocks of electrical engineering, but a review is in order, so that the aspects relevant to signal integrity can be emphasized.
Samuel H. Russ

Chapter 2. Practical Matters: Circuit Boards and Debugging

We will review the basic information that one needs to design and understand circuit boards. The reason we are doing this is so that when we get into concepts like transmission lines and ground bounce, we can use examples from the world of circuit boards.
Samuel H. Russ

Chapter 3. Gates, Packaging, and Boards: Properties and Modeling

This chapter talks about how packaging and circuit boards affect logic gates (actually, logic inputs and outputs) and reviews concepts like noise margin, drive strength, and source resistance. It also discusses heat and temperature and the different options that exist for modeling boards and circuits.
Samuel H. Russ

Chapter 4. Circuit Elements: Resistance, Capacitance, and Inductance

The chapter reviews the concepts of resistance, capacitance, and inductance in depth. Even though most electrical and computer engineers have studied and used these concepts for some time, the concepts are often misunderstood.
Samuel H. Russ

Chapter 5. Ground Bounce and Ringing

We have spent the first four chapters studying the basics, including circuit boards and “lumped” parameters such as resistance, capacitance, and inductance. We also studied important consequences of these parameters, such as how return current follows the signal path. Now we are going to study two of the effects that these lumped parameters cause, ground bounce and ringing.
Samuel H. Russ

Chapter 6. Distributed Analysis: Transmission Lines, Z 0, Reflections, and Termination

This chapter introduces distributed analysis, the art of analyzing circuits and structures that are so physically large that the voltage on wires is not necessarily the same at each point. The fact that the structure is so large means that parts of the circuit are “unaware” what other parts are doing, and the results are, to say the least, counterintuitive. Wires turn into resistors and excesses in current cause voltage waves to crash back and forth.
Samuel H. Russ

Chapter 7. Lossy Transmission Lines

In Chap. 6, the concepts of a transmission line, reflections, and terminations were unveiled. Transmission lines have the very desirable property that they carry signals nearly completely intact, and that is why they are widely used. However, if you go all the way back to the beginning of the chapter, one assumption was made: that, in a coaxial cable or on a twisted-pair cable, there is no loss of signal energy. This turns out to be false, but the source of the loss is surprising. This chapter discusses dielectric loss, explains how it manifests itself, and explains how it affects signals on real circuit boards.
Samuel H. Russ

Chapter 8. Differential Signaling

In exploring transmission lines and signals, it is clear that signals that are close to each other have both capacitive and inductive coupling between them. It turns out that this is both good news and bad news. In this chapter, we will start with the good news and introduce differential signaling. In the next chapter, we will break the bad news and discuss crosstalk. One common method for better signal integrity is to move to differential signaling. This seemingly simple change, using both a positive and negative waveform in a matched set, eliminates the need for an intact ground plane, takes care of return current, manages ground bounce, and generally improves signal integrity.
Samuel H. Russ

Chapter 9. Crosstalk

When this chapter is finished, you should be able to understand crosstalk. Crosstalk is, arguably, the best-known signal-integrity problem, the arch villain of signal integrity. For that reason, it is commonly blamed for signal-integrity issues. Sometimes the blame is warranted and sometimes not. It is important to understand what crosstalk is, so that you can identify when it is (and is not) causing your signal-integrity problems.
Samuel H. Russ

Chapter 10. Power Distribution Network: Frequency Domain Analysis

This chapter covers power-supply design. It turns out that power supplies source both DC and AC current. That a DC power supply sources AC current is surprising, but is a consequence of the fact that signal-value changes are an AC phenomenon. As a result, a DC power supply is actually modeled in the frequency domain.
Samuel H. Russ

Chapter 11. EMI/EMC: Design and Susceptibility

Up until now, the book has been about getting a design or product to work. More subtly, it has been about how to get a product to work by itself. This chapter explores what it takes to make sure that the design works with other devices and that other devices do not interfere with it.
Samuel H. Russ

Chapter 12. Electrostatic Discharge

We have all touched a metal object after walking across a carpet and received an electric shock. This shock is officially known as electrostatic discharge (ESD), and what is a discomfort for us can severely damage electronics. This chapter studies the origin of ESD and strategies to make designs resistant to it.
Samuel H. Russ

Chapter 13. Clocks, Jitter, and Phased-Lock Loops

We conclude our tour of signal integrity by focusing on clocks and clock sources. Clock sources turn out to be the drama queens of electronic design, requiring extremely careful layout and often causing significant design headaches.
Samuel H. Russ

Chapter 14. More Practical Matters: Testing, Debugging, DFX, and Quality Management

If you apply everything in this book to a design, chances are it still may not work correctly the first time. And then what about the 1,000,000th time? How can we make sure our designs work and can be mass-produced?
Samuel H. Russ

Chapter 15. Practical Matters III: Commercial and Legal Implications, Project Management, and Risk Mitigation

This chapter introduces you to some more of the “other aspects” of design. While not necessarily technical aspects, they are essential for good design, and knowing about them will help you be a better designer. More importantly, it will help you and your coworkers produce a design that is successful. This information will also help you decide whether you eventually want to go into engineering management and therefore help you make some long-term career decisions.
Samuel H. Russ


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