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Über dieses Buch

Hackers, cyber-criminals, Dark Web users, and techno-terrorists beware! This book should make you think twice about attempting to do your dirty work in the smart cities of tomorrow.

Scores of cities around the world have begun planning what are known as “smart cities.” These new or revamped urban areas use the latest technology to make the lives of residents easier and more enjoyable.They will have automated infrastructures such as the Internet of Things, “the Cloud,” automated industrial controls, electronic money, mobile and communication satellite systems, wireless texting and networking. With all of these benefits come new forms of danger, and so these cities will need many safeguards to prevent cyber criminals from wreaking havoc.

This book explains the advantages of smart cities and how to design and operate one. Based on the practical experience of the authors in projects in the U.S. and overseas in Dubai, Malaysia, Brazil and India, it tells how such a city is planned and analyzes vital security concerns that must be addressed along the way.

Most of us will eventually live in smart cities. What are the advantages and the latest design strategies for such ventures? What are the potential drawbacks? How will they change the lives of everyday citizens? This book offers a preview of our future and how you can help prepare yourself for the changes to come.



Chapter 1. The Coming Age of the Smart City

The early 21st century is the time of disruptive technologies. Uber, a software company, is now the world’s largest taxi service. Airbnb, another software company, is now the world’s largest hotel company. Amazon.​com and Ali Baba, both essentially dot.​com companies, are the largest retailers. It thus should not come as a huge surprise that broadband, AI and IT systems are now poised to disrupt conventional ideas as to how to plan for, operate, invest in, and even re-invent the concept of what is called a ‘smart city.’ These powerful new digital technologies are strangely suited to being economically, socially and politically disruptive to every aspect of society—including urban life and city planning in contemporary times.
Joseph N. Pelton, Indu B. Singh

Chapter 2. The Challenges of Envisioning and Planning a True Smart City

Effective urban planning is a tough slog. It requires commitment, a willingness to learn from others, and a true community sense of vision. If you thought creating an effective city government and achieving a better community was a challenge 50 years ago, there are many reasons why this is many, many times tougher today.
Joseph N. Pelton, Indu B. Singh

Chapter 3. The Critical Infrastructure and Software Needed to Build a Smart City

There is no one template that one follows to create a smart city. It is just not that simple. Anyone who says that they have a straightforward and foolproof plan for you to follow to design, implement and operate a successful smart city—well that person is lying!
Joseph N. Pelton, Indu B. Singh

Chapter 4. Cyber Defense in the Age of the Smart City

The number one problem in trying to create effective cyber defense systems for the next decade will most likely come from looking through a rearview mirror to anticipate problems. Cambridge Analytics, which “appropriated” the personality profiles of 50 million users of Facebook and then bombarded them with a view of “news” distorted to conform with their political views, is just one example of a cybersecurity problem that has emerged from the research on the latest U. S. presidential election. Each new edition of industrial controls, machine-generated commands to control automated infrastructure and artificially intelligent algorithm will reveal a new type of cyber weakness that urban planners must contend with and hopefully solve.
Joseph N. Pelton, Indu B. Singh

Chapter 5. Using Intelligent Data Analytics for Urban Planning and Design

The key to any smart city begins with a focused planning process. This effort, if conducted properly, has only a single purpose. This is to define on a collective basis the current situation of a city and where it wants to go in the near, medium and longer term. Personal experience with smart city planning has indicated that cities do not change overnight. It takes hard and dedicated work and continuity of purpose. The Danish city of Copenhagen began planning to become free of dependence on petroleum and energy resilient in the 1970s when a severe oil shortage drove planning in this direction. They now expect to fully reach their goal of a zero-carbon footprint as of 2025, but it has taken some five decades of effort to reach this objective.
Joseph N. Pelton, Indu B. Singh

Chapter 6. Protecting Privacy from Internet Abuses in the Smart City

Digital technology and artificial intelligence in the smart city can do a lot of good things, right? You’d better believe it!
Joseph N. Pelton, Indu B. Singh

Chapter 7. A 21st Century Smart City and Mobility

Today’s smart cities depend on broadband systems for every aspect of their operations. Municipal systems for transportation, energy, health and education, water, sewage, and other vital services heavily depend on broadband networks. In addition, virtually all forms of businesses would be severely compromised if they lost their broadband mobility networks. On top of everything else security and video surveillance systems that protect cities and aid first responders are dependent on broadband systems. Especially challenging is the ability of broadband wireless systems to keep up with demand because of the frequency shortages due to rapidly escalating public and professional demand for expanded services.
Joseph N. Pelton, Indu B. Singh

Chapter 8. Smart and Safe Control Systems for the Smart City

The increased automation of key urban infrastructure via such means as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) networks and Artificially Intelligent Industrial Command and Control Systems adds convenience and reduces labor costs and urban government employment needs. But, alternatively these automated control systems have dramatically increased the number of potential vulnerability points in cities. In short, as artificially intelligent command and control capabilities are introduced into smart cities it also means disgruntled employees, cyber-criminals and cyber-terrorists can attack vital urban infrastructure. Instead of attacking vital infrastructure physically they can attack the electronic brains that control the infrastructure these cyber-criminals and terrorists wish to attack.
Joseph N. Pelton, Indu B. Singh

Chapter 9. The Smart City Floating Safely on the Cloud

One of the most significant changes in the world of cyber systems has been the development and meteoric rise in the processing and storage capacity of the cloud. The mushrooming of the capabilities and use of the cloud—no pun intended—coupled with the development of the Internet of Things (IoTs) and the new features for broadband fifth generation wireless services will create fantastic new capabilities. But these enchanced digital tools will but give rise to new levels of cybersecurity concerns and potentially create new vulnerabilities with regard to vital urban systems and especially critical infrastructure.
Joseph N. Pelton, Indu B. Singh

Chapter 10. Challenges and Opportunities in the Evolution of the Internet of Everything

The most significant current trend in the rapidly changing global digital ecosphere is the rapid spread of the Internet of Things (IoT). Indeed, the next iteration in the evolution of the IoTs will be what some are calling the Internet of Everything (IoE). In this new world that includes RFID and digital interface connections with all manufactured and merchandised objects, the world and especially the smart city will increasingly be awash in data that allows instantaneous digital updates on everything. Over time this omnipresence of the Internet and smart-enabled units will expand worldwide. In the world of the smart city virtually every manufactured object will encompass the entire planet and even populate outer space outposts. Wherever there is human activity, electronic networks, or operational satellites the IoE will be there, too.
Joseph N. Pelton, Indu B. Singh

Chapter 11. Coping with the Dark Web, Cyber-Criminals and Techno-Terrorists in a Smart City

The focus of this chapter is on efforts to curtail the activities of cyber-criminals and the latest strategies as to how this might be accomplished. This includes addressing efforts to identify, catch and prosecute cyber-criminals, methods to identify them, and the tools available to them via such mechanisms as the dark web. We also explore the latest protective strategies that can be used to secure vital sites against cyber-attacks. The world of the Internet and the continuing global spread of cyber-services and new capabilities such as the Internet of Things, the cloud, and industrial control systems such as SCADA networks has expanded the scope of cyber-crime and redefined the scope of security systems in the smart city.
Joseph N. Pelton, Indu B. Singh

Chapter 12. How Nations and Smart Cities Can Cope with Cyber-Terrorism and Warfare

The previous chapter largely addressed the issue of cyber-crime and the dark web. At the end of this chapter it began to address the even more serious issue of cyber warfare and the need to find ways to combat techno-terrorism without violating citizens’ rights to privacy. This is a thorny issue where some compromise on both sides might ultimately be needed.
Joseph N. Pelton, Indu B. Singh

Chapter 13. Flexibility, Vision and Foresight in the Planning for Tomorrow’s Smart City

As a sage wag once observed: “The future is not what it used to be.” We truly live in a time of future compression, where change sometimes seems to be spiraling out of control as we zoom into Tomorrowland. Planning for a smart city that has sufficient legs to remain current for even a few years seems incredibly difficult. How can city planners have the insight of an Arthur C. Clarke or a clairvoyant to design smart cities that remain vital for even as long as several decades into the future? Technological innovation, social interaction on the Internet, globally linked economies, and increasing trade in services and intellectual property in today’s digital ecosphere are all combining to accelerate the rate of change. The concept of an increasing rate of acceleration is known to physicists by the highly technical term known as jerk. That is the term for a fourth order exponential of change over time.
Joseph N. Pelton, Indu B. Singh

Chapter 14. The Smart City: Build It and They Will Come

There are many terms that are being used today. Smart cities, Intelligent Community, smart planning, smart infrastructure, big data, intelligent data, broadband systems, digital defense and cybersecurity are just some of the phrases that are being used by journalists, urban planners and technologists. The result is that confusion abounds when it comes to the phrase smart cities. Does it mean better and more informed planning to make a city work more efficiently to make urban areas more livable and responsive to citizen needs? Or does it just mean using more automation, artificial intelligence and broadband digital networks to create smart infrastructure that operates more smoothly at lower cost?
Joseph N. Pelton, Indu B. Singh


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