Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
This paper argues that digital computing is sustainably organized by the distributed agency of visual displays. By a praxeological analysis based on Harold Garfinkel’s “net-work theory,” it can be shown that the operability of the ENIAC – the first programmable digital general-purpose computer – is based on three properties that are characteristic of computing today: the nonrepresentational, public, and discrete nature of computer screens. This means that something can be read off the display that wasn’t originally intended. The digital display is characterized by an administrative practice (of registry) and not solely by the form of visualization. In this case, light dots do not yet represent digital image signs as we understand them today – as an arbitrary allocation of significant and significate. The single point of light does not exhibit a dissimilar but a strictly coupled coordinative relationship to its reference object. The ENIAC display targets the comprehensible representation of digit positions instead of the readability of digits. Its purpose is not the semantic interpretation of primary information; its importance is constituted at the level of secondary information, through which a praxeological path structure is revealed.
Three praxeological characteristics indicate that the technical constitution of the first computer display is designed for structural pragmatic incorporation of a human counterpart, while, at the same time, the scope of action is being restricted: (1) ENIAC’s computer program is defined by the fact that it controls the tasks that must be completed and simultaneously rejects the human-readable semantic representation of interim results. The idea of electronic digital computers lies in the deletion of human-interoperable intermediaries. (2) The public demonstration of the ENIAC exhibited (a) that digital computing entails a sequence of operations and a distributed calculation, (b) that the data visualization on a light display is faster than on paper, and (c) that all data are simultaneously visible on distributed displays in the process of their computing. (3) The ENIAC display therefore constitutes a decoupling of the calculation process and its integral representation. Since the ENIAC, we have been dealing with analytical images that display situations that are not immediately visible.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Akera, Atsushi. 2007. Calculating a Natural World: Scientists, Engineers, and Computers During the Rise of U.S. Cold War Research. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Bergin, Thomas J. 2000. 50 Years of Army Computing. From ENIAC to MSRC. A Record of a Symposium and Celebration, November 13 and 14, 1996, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Adelphi, MD: ARL Technical Publishing Branch.
Basic Items for Publicity Concerning ENIAC. December 21, 1945. UPD 8.4. Moore School of Electrical Engineering Office of the Director Records, 1931–1948, University Archives and Records, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
Campbell-Kelly, Martin et al. 2014. Computer: A History of the Information Machine. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, A Member of the Perseus Books Group.
Ceruzzi, Paul E. 1983. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935–1945. Westport, CT: Greenwood Pub Group.
Curtis, Neal. 2006. War and Social Theory: World, Value and Identity. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossRef
Fritz, W. Barkley. 1996. The Women of ENIAC. IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 18 (3): 13–28. CrossRef
Garfinkel, Harold. 1956. Some Sociological Concepts and Methods for Psychiatrists. Psychiatric Research Reports 6: 181–198.
Garfinkel, Harold. 2008. Toward a Sociological Theory of Information. Boulder, CO: Paradigm.
Goldstine, Adele Katz. 1946. Report on the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer). Technical Manual, University of Pennsylvania, Moore School of Electrical Engineering. Philadelphia, PA.
Hagen, Wolfgang. 1997. Der Stil der Sourcen. Anmerkungen zur Theorie und Geschichte der Programmiersprachen. In Hyperkult, edited by Wolfgang Coy et al., 33–68. Basel: Stroemfeld.
Haigh, Thomas, Mark Priestley, and Crispin Rope. 2016. ENIAC in Action. Making and Remaking the Modern Computer. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. CrossRef
Herbert, Henry. Demonstration of ENIAC. February 1, 1946. For Release February 16, 1946. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Arthur W. Burks Papers, Institute of American Thought, Indiana University–Purdue University of Indianapolis, IN.
Husserl, Edmund. 1960. Cartesian Mediations. An Introduction to Phenomenology. Translated by Dorian Cairns. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. CrossRef
History of Development of Computing Devices. Future Release. War Department – Bureau of Public Relations. For Release in Morning Papers, Saturday, February 16, 1946. For Radio Broadcast after 7:00 p.m. EST, February 15, 1946. Arthur W. Burks Papers, Institute of American Thought, Indiana University–Purdue University of Indianapolis, IN.
Kittler, Friedrich. 2001. Computer Graphics: A Semi-Technical Introduction. Grey Room 2: 30–45. CrossRef
Knorr-Cetina, Karin. 2012. Skopische Medien: Am Beispiel der Architektur von Finanzmärkten. In Mediatisierte Welten: Forschungsfelder und Beschreibungsansätze, edited by Friedrich Krotz, and Andreas Hepp, 167–195. Wiesbaden: Springer. CrossRef
Knorr-Cetina, Karin. 2014. Scopic media and global coordination: the mediatization of face-to-face encounters. In Mediatization of Communication, edited by Knut Lundby, 39–62. Berlin: De Gruyter.
Light, Jennifer S. 1999. When Computers Were Women. Technology and Culture 40 (3): 455–483. MathSciNet
Mauchly, John. 1982. The Use of High Speed Vacuum Tube Devices for Calculating, privately circulated memorandum, August 1942, Moore School of Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania. In The Origins of Digital Computers. Selected Papers, edited by Brian Randell, 355–358. Berlin/Heidelberg/New York, NY: Springer. CrossRef
McCartney, Scott. 1999. ENIAC. The Triumphs and Tragedies of the World’s First Computer. New York, NY: Walker Books.
Moore School of Electrical Engineering. 1943. The ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), Vol. I: A Report Covering Work until December 31, 1943. University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, PA.
Moore School of Electrical Engineering. 1944. The ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer). Progress Report Covering Work from July 1 to December 31, 1944. University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, PA.
Morris, Charles. 14th edition 1977. Foundations of the Theory of Signs. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Ordnance Department Develops All-Electronic Calculation Machine. Future Release. War Department – Bureau of Public Relations. For Release in Morning Papers, Saturday, 16 February 1946. For Radio Broadcast after 7:00 p.m. EST, 15 February 1946. Arthur W. Burks Papers, Institute of American Thought, Indiana University–Purdue University of Indianapolis, IN.
Pias, Claus. 2002. Computer-Spiel-Welten. Munich: Fink.
Pias, Claus. 2017. Computer Game Worlds. Zurich: Diaphanes.
Schüttpelz, Erhard. 2015. Skill, Deixis, Medien. In Mediale Anthropologie, edited by Christiane Voss and Lorenz Engell, 153–182. Paderborn: Fink.
Shurkin, Joel. 1996. Engines of the Mind. The Evolution of the Computer from Mainframes to Microprocessors. New York, NY/London: W.W. Norton & Company.
Soare, Robert. 1999. The History and Concept of Computability. In Handbook of Computability Theory, edited by Edward R. Griffor, 3–36. Amsterdam: Elsevier. CrossRef
Thielmann, Tristan. 2013. Digitale Rechenschaft. Die Netzwerkbedingungen der Akteur-Medien-Theorie seit Amtieren des Computers. In Akteur-Medien-Theorie, edited by Tristan Thielmann, and Erhard Schüttpelz, 337–424. Bielefeld: transcript.
Virilio, Paul, and Sylvère Lotringer. 1997. Pure War. New York: Semiotext(e).
Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera. 1996. ENIAC at 50: The Birth of the Information Age. A Short History of the Second American Revolution. University of Pennsylvania Almanac 42 (18): 4–7.
- The ENIAC Display: Insignia of a Digital Praxeology
- Chapter 6
Neuer Inhalt/© ITandMEDIA