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In this chapter, we provide in some detail the legislative background of the SBIR program as well as an overview of the SBIR data used in the analyses in the following chapters. We provide this background information not only for context but also to give perspective to the types of businesses and research projects considered empirically in the following chapters.
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The United States’ Innovation system relies heavily on public funding for basic research, largely dispersed by decentralized federal agencies and initiatives aligned with these agencies but driven by state governments. Competitive award processes administered independently by these federal agencies deliver SBIR funding to private and public institutions, a source of commercialization-focused innovation funding discussed previously in this chapter. The mission of the Department of Defense (DOD) is to provide the military forces needed to protect the United States and to deter war. The agency is led by the Secretary of Defense, who serves as the principal defense policy advisor to the President and who sits on the Presidential Cabinet; the Secretary is appointed by the Office of the President and confirmed by the U.S. Senate. The Secretary’s office is tasked with planning, managing resources, and developing policies for the United States military and civilian operations. The Department of Defense has multiple subordinate offices, including the departments of the Army, Navy, and the Air Force, four separate national intelligence services, and other defense agencies focused on the advanced research and development (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), defense logistics, health, threat reduction, and security. The Department of Defense is the oldest government agency in the United States, and it remains its largest both in terms of the budget and in number of employees. Currently, over 1.4 million individuals are in active service and over 700,000 civilians are employed by the DOD. An additional 1.1 million individuals comprise the U.S. National Guard and Reserve. As such, the DOD is the largest employer in the United States. The DOD is housed in the Pentagon, one of the world’s largest office buildings, and maintains an inventory of defense installations worldwide, which includes a physical presence of over several hundred thousand structures, spread over 30 million acres of land. Established in 1775 by the nascent U.S. government’s Continental Congress, the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps operated as individual entities that were directed by a separate War Department, which was established in 1789. These forces were seen as a priority for the newly formed American government following its war for independence from Britain. The Coast Guard was added to the cadre of U.S. armed forces in 1790. Naturally, the DOD played the most central role in and sustained the most personnel losses during wartime in U.S. history. From the U.S. Civil War (1860s) to World Wars I and II, to military engagement in Iraq and Afghanistan (2000s), the DOD’s approaches, technologies, and manpower have been tested on battlefields worldwide. In 1947, all branches of the U.S. military establishment were organized under a newly created National Military Establishment, which replaced the War Department, under the National Security Act of 1947. Secretaries of the Army, Navy, and Air Force, which previously sat on the Presidential Cabinet and reported directly to the President, were replaced by a single Secretary of Defense on the Cabinet under a 1949 amendment to the Act of 1947. Each force was also made subordinate to the Secretary of Defense, who led the newly named Department of Defense. The National Security Act was motivated by inefficient military spending and conflicts between military departments, and it was signed into law by U.S. President Harry S. Truman. The Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, signed by U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, streamlined lines of authority within the DOD and clarified chains of command, in the event of military action. While each department retained control of organizing, training, and equipping their forces, the Act defined the chain of command, directed from the President to the Secretary of Defense and then to the heads of each military department. The Act of 1958 additionally established the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), which acts as the centralized research authority for the DOD. DARPA’s role is to develop advanced technologies for defense use during the Space Race between the USSR and the United States. DARPA was established following the USSR’s launch of Sputnik 1, the first unmanned satellite in space, before the United States was able to accomplish the same feat. The DOD has consistently represented a substantial portion of the U.S. government’s spending; in 2019, its budget allocation accounted for 17% of the total U.S. federal government budget and is the largest military expenditure worldwide. Over time, military spending has also increased during wartime. Notably, some defense-related activities, such as the research and development of nuclear weapons, are not included in the DOD’s budget but are included in the DOE’s budget. Today, the U.S. DOD has shifted to supporting a smaller, more technologically advanced military that is engaged in continuous, non-wartime combat. As such, the DOD continues to invest in defense oriented technologies that boost the military superiority of the United States. As technologies to deter nuclear proliferation and increase U.S. cybersecurity are increasingly important, the DOD’s investments in applied technology development are highly critical to its mission to protect the United States against potential adversaries. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the focal federal agency for conducting health research in the United States. It is tasked as the steward of medical and behavioral research for the Nation to generate basic and applied knowledge to improve health outcomes and reduce illness and disabilities. The NIH draws its early origins in 1887, from the nation’s first, one-room laboratory, working under the Marine Health Service, which provided care for merchant seaman, and eventually it was charged with examination of ships arriving in the United States for infectious disease. In 1901, the small laboratory was allocated $35,000 for a new building in Washington D.C. through a routine Congressional budget appropriation, which the NIH considers to be its founding legislation. Two key changes to laboratory research followed. The establishment of the Public Health and Marine Hospital Service in 1902 was one change. It laid the ground work for science-led research through its first formal research program in pathology and bacteriology led by its chemistry, pharmacology, and zoology divisions. Importantly, the new program enabled scientists to lead and staff the research work, rather than physicians, who had previously been required to hold leadership roles. The Biologics Control Act of 1902 was the second change. It gave the laboratory and service the lead role as the regulatory agency for vaccines and antitoxins. Motivated by the deaths of 13 children in St. Louis in that year, the act and several that followed established standards and licensing procedures for pharmaceutical producers. Work in the laboratory began immunology research in the United States. In 1912, a reorganization of the laboratory service renamed it the Public Health Service (PHS) and expanded its authority to conduct research on non-contagious diseases and pollution in U.S. waterways. Throughout World War I, the PHS contributed to improving the sanitation of military bases throughout the United States, including the hygiene and medical practices involving U.S. service members. In 1916, the first female bacteriologist was hired, Dr. Ida Bergston. The 1930 Ransdell Act established the institute and gave it its current name: The National Institute of Health (a singular institute at that time). The National Cancer Institute (NCI) was established soon after, which coincided with cancer entering the forefront of the national conversation around medical challenges. The establishment of the NCI led to the disease-specific organization it retains today. The NIH’s focus during World War II transitioned primarily to war-related health challenges. The Institute examined causes for some service members’ medical inability to serve. Most often the causes were defective teeth and syphilis. The NIH investigated workers’ exposure to hazardous substances in industrial warfare manufacturing, which led to improved work conditions. The NIH also developed vaccines and therapies for the battlefield, including those targeting yellow fever and typhus. The adoption of oral saline therapy for first aid was also discovered and promoted for use during the war, in addition to the development of standards for oxygen provision and heated flight suits for high altitude pilots. The 1944 Public Health Service Act defined medical research following the war; the act expanded and established a large grants program at NIH and added new institutes reflective of categorized diseases. The grants program began at NCI and expanded to all institutes in 1946, growing its budget from $4 million to $100 million over a decade. Congress funded the establishment of new institutes for mental health, dental and heart disease. Ongoing reorganization of institutes continued over subsequent years, reflecting a pattern of focus around specific diseases rather than academic or medical disciplines. This pattern emerged due to the feeling that Congress might be more likely to fund disease-specific objectives. The Act also helped to establish clinical research at NIH, as well as an ethics review process for clinical work. In the 1960s, grantees of the NIH were required to undergo review when working with human subjects. A guide for the use and care of laboratory animal subjects was also developed. Congressional funding for the NIH in the late-1960s and 1970s targeted goal-oriented research along specific diseases more than basic science research. Two acts targeting cancer and heart disease in 1971 and 1972 expanded the work in these areas greatly. In 1980, the AIDS crisis presented a similar challenge for which targeted funding was provided. Late in the 1980s, the NIH and DOE collaborated to begin the Human Genome Project, which sought to map and sequence human genes. NIH’s early focus on basic and clinical research reflects its ongoing operations, wherein colleagues from basic and clinical science exchange ideas around health-focused research. Consensus building is prioritized through regular conferences bringing together physicians and scientists worldwide around new challenges, therapies, or developments in the field of health. Today, the NIH has 21 institutes and six centers dedicated to protecting and improving health and conducting science responsibly, ranging from its earliest, the National Cancer Institute, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, to its most recent, the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, founded in 2010. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was created through the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958. Its mandate was to conduct research around flight within and external to the Earth’s atmosphere. NASA’s origins draw from an era of national defense concerns and competition with the USSR following World War II. The Cold War, which ensued, was focused on the differing socio-political ideologies between the two countries, and scientific advancements in space exploration became a focal platform for competition, known as the space race. Research in rocketry funded by the DOD during the 1950s elevated the United States to be an important scientific contributor to science exploration. The DOD gained political and popular support through President Dwight D. Eisenhower’s approval of efforts to launch an orbiting scientific satellite. The International Geophysical Year (1957–58) hallmarked these efforts, which focused around collecting information about the earth. The USSR announced similar intentions to launch a satellite that year. The launch of the USSR’s Sputnik 1 satellite in 1957, before the United States successfully launched a satellite in 1958, was a catalyst for the establishment of NASA and other government sponsored efforts to manage and accelerate air and space research and development. Further, Sputnik served as an important signal for the U.S. public, which garnered support for government investment in space exploration, closing a perceived technology gap which had implications for national security and the superiority of the United States over the USSR. This moment heralded increased spending on aerospace education and research activities from Congress and the Executive Branch. NASA’s work formally began in 1958, absorbing the ongoing activities and staff of the pre-existing National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and other related government efforts. Within a short period of time, NASA had incorporated the facilities and operations of major national research laboratories, experts in space science and jet propulsion, and missile ballistics from U.S. academic institutions and the U.S. military. Capitalizing on the ongoing efforts of other agencies and institutions, NASA’s work as an agency grew quickly and their accomplishments were soon identifiable. NASA’s first space launch occurred within a month of its institution, as the Explorer 1 satellite was launched as part of the International Geophysical Year. The satellite documented radiation zones in earth’s atmosphere, which aided scientific understanding of solar radiation reaching the earth. Additional space missions were developed and executed quickly over the next several years. Two important objectives of the early 1960s, which captured popular attention and established the U.S. dominance in space exploration were the first successful human spaceflight and the exploration of earth’s moon. In 1961, Astronaut Alan Shepard became the first American to fly into space on Mercury. In 1962, Astronaut John Glenn successfully orbited the earth; both projects proving the ability for the safe launch and return of humans into space. In 1965, Astronaut Edward White conducted the first spacewalk. Project Apollo aimed to support human exploration of the moon, motivated by President John F. Kennedy’s directive. Costing over $25.4 billion over its lifetime, reaching the moon was the costliest non-defense expenditure made by the United States. With several setbacks, including the loss of astronauts in earlier missions, Apollo successfully reached the moon in 1969 when Astronaut Neil Armstrong and Astronaut Edwin Aldrin Jr. walked on the moon. Over the course of the Apollo program, 12 astronauts, including trained physical scientists, walked on the moon. Exploratory efforts in space beyond earth and a permanent presence in space were also established priorities for NASA from the 1970s to today. The search for life beyond Earth began in 1975 with the Viking spacecraft, including the exploration of Jupiter’s moons by Galileo. In 1975, the United States and USSR collaborated in space, experimenting with docking and scientific research for both countries in the joint Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. Today, a permanent human presence in space exists on the International Space Station, a symbol of global cooperation in space exploration. After a 6-year hiatus, NASA’s 1981 Space Shuttle program re-established America’s presence in space; the Space Shuttle, developed by NASA, is launched like a rocket, but capable of gliding to an unpowered landing on earth, similar to an airplane. Astronaut Sally Ride became the first woman in space in 1983. Setbacks such as the loss of crew aboard Challenger and Columbia, have contributed to the tragic loss of NASA astronauts over time, yet many believe that NASA’s successful missions still far outweigh its tragic failures. NASA’s activities also focus on understanding earth and developing technologies for travel within earth’s atmosphere. Improvements in understanding of supersonic aeronautics and flight maneuverability over NASA’s tenure have increased the efficiency of airplanes and laid the groundwork for the Space Shuttle. NASA’s X-43A airplane technology was used to fly at ten times the speed of sound, a record for non-space aircraft. NASA’s Landsat program also works to use NASA satellites for earth applications, including improved crop management and weather prediction, and even data to identify patterns in tropical deforestation and climate change. The Department of Energy (DOE) is tasked with ensuring the security and wellbeing of the Nation through its energy-oriented activities on science and technology innovation. The DOE is responsible for managing the U.S. energy systems and production, in addition to its nuclear capabilities including the use of nuclear weaponry in defense settings and for energy production, and the secure clean-up of nuclear activities. There are 17 National Laboratories maintained by the DOE. The agency is led by the Secretary of Energy, who is appointed by the President and who sits on the President’s Cabinet. Founded in 1977, the Department of Energy Organization Act formally instituted the agency as the U.S. federal government’s central point of coordination among energy research and development and policy. However, energy-oriented activities had been underway for many years prior to the DOE’s establishment and were undertaken by different federal agencies and activities. Most notably, however, the DOE unified two distinct programs under a single administration, the Atomic Energy Commission and the other variety of energy-oriented activities (defense-related and not), including hydropower electric dam projects and other Department of the Interior investments. The DOE effectively combined the energy research and development activities of the Atomic Energy Commission and the Department of the Interior. The DOE took responsibility for long-term, high-risk research in technology development, which included federal power marketing, energy conservation, nuclear weapons, energy regulation and central data collection activities. The establishment of the DOE came amid calls for energy planning and management related to a potential energy crisis identified in the 1960s and 70s wherein American consumption of energy far outweighed its national production. President Richard M. Nixon pushed for the foundation of a federal institution focused on energy after several international conflicts challenged global energy production centers and threatened the U.S. supply of foreign energy supply, such as the Yom Kippur War of 1973. Further, the onset of The Cold War increased fears of energy shortage amid potential conflict with the USSR. With the establishment of this organization, it was President Nixon’s hope that the United States would free itself from dependence on foreign energy. Before the 1970s, access to and use of energy in the United States was low cost and abundant. The U.S. government’s role in energy policy was minor, often leaving it to the private sector to manage the manufacturing, production, and supply of energy, in various forms. Any regulatory or government oversight managed specific energy types (e.g., oil, hydroelectric) in silos and others that were subject to different processes, programs, and regulations. A key element of the DOE’s inherited history was the development of nuclear weapons and energy, which pre-dated its establishment. In 1939, a letter from Professor Albert Einstein to President Franklin D. Roosevelt informed the U.S. government of the potential for energy generation from nuclear chain reactions. At the time, this was under development for weaponry by Germany. Creating an advisory committee on uranium along with an investment of resources, $2.2 million, the United States embarked on the development of a nuclear bomb. This work was placed under the control of the Army Corps of Engineers within the DOD. The first atomic bombs were built at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in New Mexico and deployed in war in 1945 over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, killing nearly 300,000 people. Following the conclusion of World War II, U.S. efforts focused on adapting the powerful use of nuclear reactions for energy production for civilian use. The Atomic Energy Act directed the Atomic Energy Commission’s work toward improving public welfare, increasing the standard of living, strengthening free competition in private enterprise, and promoting world peace. Eventual discoveries emanating from nuclear fission technology were widespread and extend beyond its wartime uses, including medical imaging systems (e.g., MRI capabilities) and radiation therapies for cancer. Limited power reactor development was conducted during this time; however, the construction of nuclear power production facilities (i.e., nuclear power plants) flourished across the United States. The growing number of commercial nuclear power plants across the country eventually focused national attention on the safety regulations and concerns around the environmental hazards of these facilities. A 1971 court ruling required the Atomic Energy Commission, which had been incorporated into the DOE, to assess environmental hazards beyond radiation efforts. This ruling adapted the agency’s licensing process for nuclear power plants, which led to an increase in costs and time to build a new nuclear power production facility and to the curbing of the rampant growth of earlier years. The Department of Energy’s projects, such as hydropower projects and oil and gas refining, were also affected by the growing environmentalism of the 1970s, and they gave the DOE an important role as regulator of energy activities. Today, some concerns of the past are still relevant for the DOE’s current work. The 1980s through the early 2000s brought continued efforts to ban nuclear weapon testing and further brought concern about disposal of hazardous nuclear waste. The DOE continues to lead the majority of nuclear waste clean-up nationwide. Maintaining the an independent energy supply and a need to improve existing energy production sources drives the U.S. research and development of the agency toward renewable energy sources. A focus on wind and solar energy is one focal area, with the agency launching design competitions and funding initiatives for innovations in this space. In 1999, the DOE introduced the Wind Powering American initiative, which targeted a significant expansion in wind powered energy production in the US over the next decade. The DOE’s current efforts include adaptations to energy production in response to global environmental concerns. Many of DOE’s policies contribute to the Nation’s progress towards national and global targets around climate change. While these concerns have led to legislation to restricting some greenhouse gas intensive energy development activities, they have also pushed the agency to invest in low carbon energy production, such as wind and solar energy. Currently, the agency supports research that makes fossil fuel-based energy cleaner, and it is committed to winning the global race for clean energy innovation that includes improved efficiency of vehicular, residential, and commercial uses of energy. The National Science Foundation’s (NSF) mandate is to advance progress in science and engineering research and education in the United States by focusing centrally on basic research and the advancement of knowledge. The Foundation’s dual focus on research and education aims to maintain the U.S. pipeline of future researchers in STEM fields, as well as a public that is literate in these fields. The NSF’s research aims to expand existing scientific frontiers that may drive future discovery and to enhance economic growth and competitiveness, national health, and defense. While other federal agencies fund research, that research is typically directed to specific applications, such as energy or health, the NSF funds research across topical areas. The NSF is governed by an independent board of advisors, the National Science Board, which oversees NSF’s activities. The NSF was established in 1950 when the National Science Foundation Act was signed into law by President Harry S. Truman. The Foundation’s mission was clearly defined, yet key debates lingered around how to achieve the agency’s objectives. Questions remained around funding criteria based on merit alone or geographical representation and the inclusion of the social sciences, in addition to the traditional government support for physical sciences. In time, the NSF created programs which supported both social and physical sciences and used merit and geographical criteria in its awards. At the conclusion of World War II, the government’s support for basic research, motivated largely by the need for increased defense innovations, was well established. Numerous voices advocated for a continuation and the institutionalization of this support. In 1945, the report Science−The Endless Frontier laid out a vision and groundwork for much of what the NSF would become. Before the Act of 1950 was signed into law, President Truman vetoed a version of the act that did not allow him to appoint a director of the NSF and its scientific advisory board. The act was signed into law, with this provision, and the Executive Branch retains the responsibility to appoint NSF leadership today. The act also gave the agency power to define its organization but required that the initial institution start with four divisions: medical research; mathematical, physical and engineering sciences; biological sciences; and scientific personnel and education. When the NSF began, it built on an established model of government-sponsored research, wherein its grants supported basic and applied research. Further, the aggregate research investments made by the NSF were evaluated by scientists to ensure that its sponsored research was valuable and of high quality. Use of the project grant system, which used scientific merit as its dominant criterion, followed models of the Public Health Service and the Office of Naval Research. This model enabled NSF to grant largely non-restricted funds, which was thought to encourage high quality and comprehensive research programs. Awards were made for unclassified research only, which enabled the NSF to sidestep critiques of McCarthyism, which were rampant in its early days. In addition to funding basic research, the NSF was also tasked with growing the base and quality of U.S. scientists. In 1952, the NSF fellowship for graduate students and postdoctoral scholars began. This program was one way that the NSF was able to fulfill its statutory requirement to support geographically diverse science by awarding fellowships to applicants from all U.S. states. In the 1950s, the advent of The Cold War brought increasing competition between the USSR and the United States, particularly evident in each country’s advances in space exploration. The launch of Sputnik in 1957, a Soviet satellite, caused a national appraisal of U.S. scientific education and research processes, and it drove increased resources to the NSF’s work. The National Defense Education Act (1958) emphasized science education programming nationwide and instituted a student loan program, as well as boosting elementary and secondary science education. The Great Society, a vision of President Lyndon B. Johnson, was launched in the 1960s. It aimed to decrease economic and racial inequalities, including access to education, through government. For the NSF, this meant expanding robust scientific educations to all U.S. citizens and the redistribution of scientific research funding. The Higher Education Facilities Act of 1963, which increased available resources to build scientific instruction facilities at U.S. colleges and universities, aligned with this vision. In 1964, the agency established its Centers of Excellence program, which aimed to expand the number of higher education facilities recognized as excellent research centers by focusing on second-tier and geographically dispersed universities. This program supported the hiring of new faculty and built new facilities to encourage specialization in these institutions. While the NSF plays a large role in defining U.S. science policy, it does not hold the responsibility to coordinate scientific research between government agencies. This role is fulfilled by the President’s Science Advisory Committee, established in 1957, and subsequently by an Office of Science and Technology housed in the Executive Branch. The 1960s brought challenges to NSF funding during the Vietnam War, which dominated a great deal of public investment in the United States. Despite funding challenges, the institution managed to increase the number of institutions competing for grants and maintained itself as a mainstay of the federal government’s research funding. In an effort to gather more Congressional appropriations for scientific research, the NSF began the Research Applied to National Needs Program in 1971, which allowed the agency to fund applied projects that served the national interest and increased NSF funding for engineering and environmental science. Further, NSF funding increased in the 1970s as the Foundation took over responsibilities from other federal agencies, including the Materials Research Laboratories Program and the Antarctic Program, both from the Department of Defense. In 1968, an amendment to the National Science Foundation Act expanded the agency’s responsibilities to include explicit support for social science research and applied research projects. However, it was not until 1991 that a separate directorate to guide social, behavioral, and economic sciences was established. During subsequent administrations, the NSF’s funding fluctuated greatly based on each president’s economic philosophy toward basic science research. During the 1980s and 1990s, funds were minimal, and not until the late 1990s and 2000s, were substantial increases made to the NSF’s budget. Additional funds were drawn from The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, which provided over $3 billion to the NSF, in addition to the $6 billion budget appropriation. NSF’s research is expansive, and over its years of existence, its broad range of activities are reflected in its growing structure. While the Foundation retains its original categories of emphasis in mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, it also includes directorates for social, behavioral, and economic sciences; geosciences; and environmental research and education; computer and information science and engineering. Each directorate has multiple focus areas; for instance, within the computer and information science directorate, foci include cyberinfrastructure, computer and network systems, and information and intelligent systems. NSF’s research investments throughout its history have been broad in scope; thus, the agency’s funding can be credited for many of the most critical scientific discoveries of the past 70 years. These research advances include improvements in deep sea exploration through remotely operated vehicles; development of bar codes for product management; discovery of the earliest human hominid, and insight into human ancestors; identification of super-massive black holes in outer space; and development of computer-aided design (CAD) software and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cloud computing platforms. Discoveries have also included evidence to prove the Big Bang Theory of the universe’s origin and the acceleration of the universe’s expansion. NSF’s leadership in funding scientific discovery in the United States extends from basic to applied research, which have led to important advances for the United States and the world.
Much of this section draws directly from Leyden and Link ( 2015). We have written about the legislative background of the SBIR program many times, so duplication of both text and emphasis is inevitable.
For a joint assessment of purposes (1) and (4), see Link and Scott ( 2018).
The set-aside percentage has slowly increased over time. It was increased in the 1992 reauthorization to 2.5%. The 2008 reauthorization set forth a plan for slow increases in the set-aside percentage, but those milestones were not met. The set-aside was 2.5% in 2011 and it increased by 0.1% points each year through 2016. In 2017 it was increased to 3.2%.
See: https://ies.ed.gov/sbir/2018awards.asp Phase I awards were originally less than $50,000 for the 6-month award period. Current awards may not exceed guideline amounts by more than 50%; $225,000 for Phase I. Agencies must report all awards exceeding the guideline amounts and must receive a special waiver from SBA to exceed the guideline amounts by more than 50%.
See: https://ies.ed.gov/sbir/2018awards.asp Phase II awards were originally less than $500,000 for the 2-year award period. Current awards may not exceed guideline amounts by more than 50%; $1.5 million for Phase II. Agencies must report all awards exceeding the guideline amounts and must receive a special waiver from SBA to exceed the guideline amounts by more than 50%.
This section draws from https://www.archive.defense.gov/about/, https://www.federalregister.gov/agencies/defense-department.
The section draws from https://history.nih.gov/exhibits/history/index.htm.
This section draws from https://www.history.nasa.gov/printFriendly/factsheet.htm and http://www.time.com/3964417/nasa-history-1958.
This section draws from https://www.nsf.gov/about/history/sensational60.pdf,
https://www.nsf.gov/about/history/nsf50/nsf8816.jsp, https://www.nsf.gov/about/history/overview-50.jsp, and
Zurück zum Zitat Joint Hearings before the Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation. (October 31, 1979). Joint Hearings before the Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation. (October 31, 1979).
Zurück zum Zitat Leyden, D. P., & Link, A. N. (2015). Public sector entrepreneurship: U.S. technology and innovation policy. New York: Oxford University Press. CrossRef Leyden, D. P., & Link, A. N. (2015). Public sector entrepreneurship: U.S. technology and innovation policy. New York: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Link, A. N., & Scott, J. T. (2018). Toward an assessment of the U.S. small business research (SBIR) program at the National Institutes of Health. Science and Public Policy, 45(1), 83–91. CrossRef Link, A. N., & Scott, J. T. (2018). Toward an assessment of the U.S. small business research (SBIR) program at the National Institutes of Health. Science and Public Policy, 45(1), 83–91. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Tibbetts, R. (1999). The Small Business Innovation Research program and NSF SBIR commercialization results. In SBIR—The Small Business Innovation Research program challenges and opportunities (pp. 129–167). Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Tibbetts, R. (1999). The Small Business Innovation Research program and NSF SBIR commercialization results. In SBIR—The Small Business Innovation Research program challenges and opportunities (pp. 129–167). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
- The U.S. Small Business Innovation Research Program
Albert N. Link
Laura T. R. Morrison
- Chapter 3
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