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Über dieses Buch

This volume constitutes the proceedings of the combined 7th International Workshop on Trends in Enterprise Architecture Research (TEAR 2012) and the 5th Working Conference on Practice-Driven Research on Enterprise Transformation (PRET-5), held in Barcelona, Spain, October 23-24, 2012, and co-located with The Open Group's Conference on Enterprise Architecture, Cloud Computing, and Security. Joining the forces of the two events with The Open Group Conference provided the unique opportunity for an intensive exchange between practitioners as well as for discussions on standardization efforts and academic research in the areas of enterprise transformation and enterprise architecture (EA). Based on careful reviews by at least three Program Committee members, 18 papers were chosen for inclusion in these proceedings. They were presented in six sessions on enterprise architecture management (EAM) effectivity, languages for EA, EAM and the ability to change, advanced topics in EA, governing enterprise transformations, and EA applications.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

TEAR: Languages for Enterprise Architecture

A Framework for Creating Pattern Languages for Enterprise Architecture

Abstract
The use of patterns and pattern languages in enterprise architecture (EA) is a relatively novel concept. Although both the concepts of patterns and EA are over 30 years old, the notion of design patterns is hardly applied to EA. There is a lack of pattern collections specifically devoted to EA: only a small number of patterns and pattern collections specifically aimed at enterprise architecture can be found in the public domain. Furthermore no framework or method exist that would assist enterprise architects in creating patterns and pattern languages for EA. This paper aims to bridge this gap by proposing a pattern framework for enterprise architecture (PF4EA), which can guide the development of well-grounded patterns and pattern languages for the EA domain. The components of the frameworks are described as well as a method for its use.
Paula Kotzé, Motse Tsogang, Alta van der Merwe

Challenges for Automated Enterprise Architecture Documentation

Abstract
Currently the documentation of an Enterprise Architecture (EA) is performed manually to a large extent. Due to the intrinsic complexity of today’s organizations this task is challenging and often perceived as very time-consuming and error-prone. Recent efforts in research and industry seek to automate EA documentation by retrieving and maintaining relevant information from productive systems. In this paper major challenges for an automated EA documentation are presented based on 1) a practical example from a global acting enterprise of the German fashion industry, 2) a literature review, and 3) a survey among 123 EA practitioners. The identified challenges are synthesized to four categories and constitute the foundation for future research efforts and pose new questions not yet considered.
Matheus Hauder, Florian Matthes, Sascha Roth

Building Strategic Enterprise Context Models with i*: A Pattern-Based Approach

Abstract
Modern enterprise engineering (EE) requires deep understanding of organizations and their interaction with their context. Because of this, in early phases of the EE process, enterprise context models are often built and used to reason about organizational needs with respects to actors in their context and vice versa. However, far from simple, this task is usually cumbersome because of knowledge and communication gaps among technical personnel performing EE activities and their administrative counterparts. In this paper, we propose the use of strategic patterns expressed with the i* language aimed to help bridging this gap. Patterns emerged from several industrial applications of our DHARMA method, and synthesize knowledge about common enterprise strategies, e.g. CRM. Patterns have been constructed based on the well-known Porter’s model of the 5 market forces and built upon i* strategic dependency models. In this way technical and administrative knowledge and skills are synthesized in a commonly agreeable framework. The use of patterns is illustrated with an industrial example in the telecom field.
Juan Pablo Carvallo, Xavier Franch

TEAR/PRET: EA in the Financial Sector

Method Support of Large-Scale Transformation in the Insurance Sector: Exploring Foundations

Abstract
Many enterprises need to handle programs that impose fundamental changes to the organization as well as the supporting IT systems. While general guidance for such transformations in form of methods, reference models, principles, etc. is available, the specific context of the insurance sector is often not considered. We conducted an interview series with informants from major European insurance companies to explore the specifics of enterprise transformation in the insurance sector. The results suggest amending existing transformation support methods by regarding transformation triggers, transformation program types and core techniques. E.g., transformations that deal with standardization, mergers and acquisitions and internal alignment are not sufficiently covered yet and techniques that deal with soft and social aspects of transformations are less visible in the insurance sector. Our findings create not only the basis for a wider survey to extend and validate initial findings, but also for comparing and discussing concrete enterprise transformation cases.
Nils Labusch, Robert Winter

On the Categorization and Measurability of Enterprise Architecture Benefits with the Enterprise Architecture Value Framework

Abstract
With the development of Enterprise Architecture (EA) as a discipline, measuring and understanding its value for business and IT has become relevant. In this paper a framework for categorizing the benefits of EA, the Enterprise Architecture Value Framework (EAVF), is presented and based on this framework, a measurability maturity scale is introduced.
In the EAVF the value aspects of EA are expressed using the four perspectives of the Balanced Scorecard with regard to the development of these aspects over time, defining sixteen key areas in which EA may provide value. In its current form the framework can support architects and researchers in describing and categorizing the benefits of EA.
As part of our ongoing research on the value of EA, two pilots using the framework have been carried out at large financial institutions. These pilots illustrate how to use the EAVF as a tool in measuring the benefits of EA.
Henk Plessius, Raymond Slot, Leo Pruijt

The Application of Enterprise Reference Architecture in the Financial Industry

Abstract
Financial institutions are facing enormous challenges in business / IT alignment. Enterprise architecture (EA) is seen as key in addressing these challenges. Major issues still exist in EA design and realization. The concept of reference architecture is explored as one of the elements that are essential to improve the quality of architectural work. In this paper we describe the research agenda to ERA. First we provide a working definition for the concept of Enterprise Reference Architecture (ERA). Second we provide a conceptual model wherein ERA is positioned. The research is based on Design Science and is now in the first explorative phase. Pilot interviews were held with the objective to validate the model. Preliminary results show that the model is recognized and give also insight in current needs for ERA.
Wijke ten Harmsen van der Beek, Jos Trienekens, Paul Grefen

TEAR: Enterprise Architecture Management and the Ability to Change

Two Speeds of EAM—A Dynamic Capabilities Perspective

Abstract
We discuss how enterprise architecture management (EAM) supports different types of enterprise transformation (ET), namely planned, proactive transformation on the one hand and emergent, reactive transformation on the other hand. We first conceptualize EAM as a dynamic capability to access the rich literature of the dynamic capabilities framework. Based on these theoretical foundations and observations from two case studies, we find that EAM can be configured both as a planned, structured capability to support proactive ET, as well as an improvisational, simple capability to support reactive ET under time pressure. We argue that an enterprise can simultaneously deploy both sets of EAM capabilities by identifying the core elements of EAM that are required for both capabilities as well as certain capability-specific extensions. We finally discuss governance and feedback mechanisms that help to balance the goals of flexibility and agility associated with dynamic and improvisational capabilities, respectively.
Ralf Abraham, Stephan Aier, Robert Winter

On Enterprise Architecture Change Events

Abstract
In practice it is difficult to maintain a high quality enterprise architecture (EA) model with regards to its actuality and completeness. However, neither literature from practice and EA frameworks nor EA research literature provide sufficient guidance for the difficult task of maintaining EA models. Recently, researchers have presented methods to collect structured data from existing data sources, e.g. from IT operations in order to (semi-)automatically update EA models. In this paper, we make an argument for the additional use of EA change events from (management) information systems. These change events do not provide clearly mappable structured information, but can be used to trigger and guide manual EA model maintenance tasks when changes occur. We present the first classification of relevant events in EA literature, detailing on their sources and impact on the EA model. Finally, we propose a model maintenance workflow that is driven by events, explain an example usage case and point to open issues in the context of EA change events.
Matthias Farwick, Christian M. Schweda, Ruth Breu, Karsten Voges, Inge Hanschke

Enterprise Architecture for the Adaptive Enterprise – A Vision Paper

Abstract
Dealing with change is a major concern in enterprise architecture. As organizations face increasingly fast-moving environments, systematic frameworks are needed to manage change at many levels. Recent advances in data analytics and business intelligence enable organizations to gain deep insights quickly and recognize needs for change, and to take actions in response. Current enterprise architecture approaches have limited ability to model and reason about the adaptiveness that is available or desirable in various parts of an enterprise. In this vision paper, we attempt a preliminary characterization of an adaptive enterprise, so as to stimulate debate and research towards EA frameworks that explicitly support adaptiveness as a design goal. Initial ideas to adopt and integrate modeling constructs from system dynamics and goal-oriented and agent-oriented requirements engineering are outlined.
Eric Yu, Stephanie Deng, Divyajyoti Sasmal

TEAR: Advanced Topics in Enterprise Architecture

Assessing Modifiability in Application Services Using Enterprise Architecture Models – A Case Study

Abstract
Enterprise architecture has become an established discipline for business and IT management. Architecture models constitute the core of the approach and serve the purpose of making the complexities of the real world understandable and manageable to humans. EA ideally aids the stakeholders of the enterprise to effectively plan, design, document, and communicate IT and business related issues, i.e. they provide decision support for the stakeholders. However, few initiatives explicitly state how one can analyze the EA models in order to aid decision-making. One approach that does focus on analysis is the Enterprise Architecture Modifiability Analysis Tool. This paper suggests changes to this tool and presents a case study in which these have been tested. The results indicate that the changes improved the tool. Also, based on the outcome of the case study further improvement possibilities are suggested.
Magnus Österlind, Robert Lagerström, Peter Rosell

New Avenues for Theoretical Contributions in Enterprise Architecture Principles - A Literature Review

Abstract
Enterprise Architecture (EA), which has been approached by both academia and industry, is considered comprising not only architectural representations, but also principles guiding architecture’s design and evolution. Even though the concept of EA principles has been defined as the integral part of EA, the number of publications on this subject is very limited and only a few organizations use EA principles to manage their EA endeavors. In order to critically assess the current state of research and identify research gaps in EA principles, we focus on four general aspects of theoretical contributions in IS. By applying these aspects to EA principles, we outline future research directions in EA principles nature, adoption, practices, and impact.
Mohammad Kazem Haki, Christine Legner

A Metamodel for Web Application Injection Attacks and Countermeasures

Abstract
Web application injection attacks such as cross site scripting and SQL injection are common and problematic for enterprises. In order to defend against them, practitioners with large heterogeneous system architectures and limited resources struggle to understand the effectiveness of different countermeasures under various conditions. This paper presents an enterprise architecture metamodel that can be used by enterprise decision makers when deciding between different countermeasures for web application injection attacks. The scope of the model is to provide low-effort guidance on an abstraction level of use for an enterprise decision maker. This metamodel is based on a literature review and revised according to the judgment by six domain experts identified through peer-review.
Hannes Holm, Mathias Ekstedt

PRET: Governing Enterprise Transformation

The Extended Enterprise Coherence-Governance Assessment

Abstract
The Enterprise Coherence-governance Assessment (ECA) instrument is a part of the GEA (General Enterprise Architecting) method for enterprise architecture. Based on experiences with this assessment instrument in a range of real world projects, the ECA has been improved, leading to the extended Enterprise Coherence-governance Assessment (eECA). So far, the eECA been applied in 54 organizations with a total of 120 respondents. The paper discusses the context in which the eECA instrument was developed, the instrument itself, as well as the results of the assessment study in which the instrument was applied.
The ECA and eECA use the term ‘coherence’ rather than the more common term ‘Business-IT alignment’, since the latter is generally associated with bringing only ‘Business’ and ‘IT’ inline. The word coherence, however, stresses the need to go beyond this. Enterprise coherence involves connections and synchronisation between all important aspects of an enterprise. ‘IT’ and ‘Business’ just being two of these aspects.
Roel Wagter, Henderik A. Proper, Dirk Witte

Designing Enterprise Architecture Management Functions – The Interplay of Organizational Contexts and Methods

Abstract
Enterprise architecture (EA) management is today a critical success factor for enterprises that have to survive in a continually changing environment. The embracing nature of the management subject and the variety of concrete goals that enterprises seek to pursue with EA management raises the need for management functions tailored to the specific demands of the using organization. The majority of existing approaches to EA management does account for the organization-specificity of their implementation, while concrete prescriptions on how to adapt an EA management function are scarce.
In this paper we present a development method for organization specific EA management functions based on the idea of reusable building blocks. A building block describes a practice-proven solution to a recurring EA management problem. The theoretic exposition of the development method is complemented by an fictitious application example.
Sabine Buckl, Florian Matthes, Christian M. Schweda

Management of Large-Scale Transformation Programs: State of the Practice and Future Potential

Abstract
In addition to continuous, evolutionary optimizations, most enterprises also undergo revolutionary transformations from time to time. Knowledge about current corporate practice for coherent IT and business transformation is therefore very valuable. In this paper we present the results of an empirical study on the management of large-scale transformation programs that focuses on IT as much as business aspects. Companies that rate themselves as mature with regards to transformation management, assess certain transformation management components different than less mature companies. Cost reduction, revenue improvement, and agility improvement are the most relevant goals of transformation programs – all these are business goals and not IT goals. Current state of the practice transformation management can be classified into three approaches: Value-driven, ungoverned and change-driven. We found that no single management approach covers all these areas appropriately yet.
Gerrit Lahrmann, Nils Labusch, Robert Winter, Axel Uhl

TEAR: EA Management Effectivity

Development of Measurement Items for the Institutionalization of Enterprise Architecture Management in Organizations

Abstract
While elaborate enterprise architecture management (EAM) methods and models are at architects’ disposal, it remains an observable and critical challenge to actually anchor, i.e. institutionalize, EAM in the organization and among non-architects. Based on previous work outlining design factors for EAM in light of institutional theory, this work discusses the theoretical grounding of respective design factors and proposes measurement items for assessing the institutionalization of EAM in organizations. The work identifies measurement items for the factors legitimacy, efficiency, stakeholder multiplicity, organizational grounding, goal consistency, content creation, diffusion and trust, contributing to evaluate and inform EAM design from several, partially new perspectives.
Simon Weiss, Robert Winter

Towards a Unified and Configurable Structure for EA Management KPIs

Abstract
The discipline Enterprise Architecture (EA) management aims to align business and IT, foster communication, and support the everlasting transformation of the organization. Thereby, EA management initiatives are driven by respective EA management goals, whose degree of achievement must be measurable. This calls for the definition of corresponding Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) enabling enterprise architects to plan, forecast, benchmark, and assess the goal fulfillment. As recent literature in the field shows, there are only few KPIs dedicated to validate EA management goal achievement. Moreover, existing indicators are differently structured, selective regarding the specific EA management goals, too general and vague with respect to the required data, and do not provide any adoption techniques for the enterprise context. In this paper we present a structure enabling the unified and configurable description of EA management KPIs. While the artifact ensures consistency among documented KPIs, it further provides guidance during their introduction and organization-specific adaptation. As first evaluation results prove, EA management domain experts consider the artifact on the whole as being helpful and applicable while simultaneously confirming the relevance of its constituents.
Florian Matthes, Ivan Monahov, Alexander W. Schneider, Christopher Schulz

The Enterprise Architecture Realization Scorecard: A Result Oriented Assessment Instrument

Abstract
Enterprise Architecture (EA) is a well-accepted, but relatively young discipline. Since most practices are in the early stages of maturity, our research is aimed to develop an assessment instrument to measure and improve the EA management function’s ability to realize its goals. In this paper, we propose the Enterprise Architecture Realization Scorecard (EARS) and an accompanying method to discover the strengths and weaknesses in the realization process of an EA management function. During an assessment, representative EA goals are selected, and for each goal, the results, delivered during the different stages of the realization process, are analyzed, discussed and valued. The outcome of an assessment is a numerical EARScorecard, explicated with indicator-values, strengths, weaknesses, and recommendations. The concept and composition of the EARS is primarily inspired by the principles of CobiT and TOGAF’s Architecture Development Method. Two cases are discussed to illustrate the use of the instrument.
Leo Pruijt, Raymond Slot, Henk Plessius, Rik Bos, Sjaak Brinkkemper

Backmatter

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