Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Rapid growth and expansion of the developing world’s urban areas has both social and biophysical consequences such as increased population density, inadequate infrastructure and services, the expansion of impermeable surfaces, and habitat fragmentation with a loss of green space. Data from NASA’s Landsat and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) programs are employed to examine urban patterns between 1973 and 2004 for the coastal mega-city of Mumbai (formerly Bombay), India. By 2015 Mumbai is expected to be the world’s second largest city containing 22.6 million people with one of the highest population densities (UN Population Division 2006). This chapter considers the city’s ongoing and future vulnerability to flood hazards in the light of climate change models predicting an increased intensity of monsoonal storms, as well as a 0.38−0.59 m sea level rise by the end of the 21st century. Landsat MSS and ETM+ data are used to map change in urban patterns, while an unsupervised classification produces a land use map for the city and its environs. SRTM data are used to build an elevation model which is analyzed in conjunction with the land use map. Zones of vulnerability to floods are identified for the city and its environs. The results suggest that the predicted consequences of climate change will exacerbate the city’s ongoing vulnerability to flooding if urgent measures are not taken to improve storm water drainage systems and shore up other flood control defenses.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Alrababah, M. A. and M. N. Alhamad. (2006). Land use/cover classification of arid and semi-arid Mediterranean landscapes using Landsat ETM. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 27(13), 2703–2718. CrossRef
Al Rawashdeh, S. and B. Saleh. (2006). Satellite Monitoring of urban spatial growth in the Amman area, Jordan. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 132(4), 211–216. CrossRef
Auch, R., J. Taylor and W. Acevedo. (2004). Urban Growth in American Cities: Glimpses of US Urbanization. USGS Circular 1252: US Department of the Interior.
Barrows, H. (1923). Geography as human ecology. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 13, 1–14.
Blaikie, R., T. Cannon, I. Davis and B. Wisner. (1994). At Risk: Natural Hazards, People’s Vulnerability and Disasters. London: Routledge.
Burton, I., R. W. Kates and G. F. White. (1993). The Environment as Hazard. New York: Guilford Press, p. 240.
Cutter, S. L. (1996). Vulnerability to environmental hazards. Progress in Human Geography, 20, 529–539. CrossRef
Cutter, S. L., J. T. Mitchell, and M. S. Scott. (2000). Revealing the vulnerability of people and places: A case study of georgetown county, south carolina. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 90(4), 713–737. CrossRef
Demographia. (2007). World Urban Areas. http://www.demographia.com/db-worldua.pdfAccessed April 24, 2008.
Few, R. (2003). Flooding, vulnerability and coping strategies: local responses to a global threat. Progress in Development Studies, 3(1), 43–58. CrossRef
GLCF (Global Land Cover Facility) (1997). Data and Products.http://glcf.umiacs.umd.edu/data/ Accessed November 6, 2007.
Hewitt, K. (1997). Regions of Risk: A Geographical Introduction to Disasters. Essex: Longman.
Jensen, R., J. Gatrell and D. McLean (eds.). (2005). Geo-Spatial Technologies in Urban Environments. Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.
Ji, C. Y., Q. Liu, D. Sun, S. Wang, P. Lin, and X. Li. (2001). Monitoring urban expansion with remote sensing in China. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 22(8), 1441–1455.
Kasperson, J. X., R. E. Kasperson and B. L. Turner II. (1995). Regions at Risk: Comparisons of Threatened Environments. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.
Kaya, S. (2007). Multitemporal analysis of rapid urban growth in Istanbul using remotely sensed data. Environmental Engineering Science, 24(2), 228–233. CrossRef
Kwarteng, A. Y. and P. S. Chavez, Jr. (1998). Change detection study of Kuwait City and environs using multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19(9), 1651–1662. CrossRef
Leahy, J. (2008). Riches rise from Mumbai slum clearance. Financial Times, May 6, 2008.
Lillesand, T. M., R. W. Kiefer, and J. W. Chipman. (2008). Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation. 6th edition. New York: Wiley.
Maktav, D., F. S. Erbek, and C. Jurgens. (2005). Remote sensing of urban area. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 26(4), 655–659. CrossRef
Maktav, D. and F. S. Erbek. (2005). Analysis of urban growth using multi-temporal satellite data in Istanbul, Turkey. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 26(4), 797–810. CrossRef
Mehta, S. (2004). Maximum City: Bombay Lost and Found. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Meehl, G. A., T. F. Stocker, W. D. Collins, P. Fiedlingstein, A. T. Gaye, J. M. Gregory, A. Kitoh, R. Knutti, J. M. Murphy, A. Noda, S. C. B. Raper, I. G. Watterson, A. J. Weaver and Z. C. Zhao. (2007). Global climate projections. In Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H. L. Miller (eds.), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, USA.
Mundia, C. N. and M. Aniya. (2005). Analysis of land use/cover changes and urban expansion of Nairobi city using remote sensing and GIS. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 26(13), 2831–2849. CrossRef
MMRDA (Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority). (1999). Regional Plan for Mumbai Metropolitan Region, 1996–2011.http://www.regionalplan-mmrda.org/ Accessed May 1, 2008.
MMRDA (Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority). (2003). Population and Employment Profile of Mumbai Metropolitan Region. http://www.mmrdamumbai.org/docs/Population%20and%20Employment%20profile%20of%20MMR.pdf Accessed May 1, 2008.
Nicholls, R. (1995). Coastal megacities and climate change. GeoJournal, 37(3), 369–379. CrossRef
Nicholls, R. J., P. P. Wong, V. R. Burkett, J. O. Codignotto, J. E. Hay, R. F. McLean, S. Ragoonaden and C. D. Woodroffe. (2007). Coastal systems and low-lying areas. In M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden and C. E. Hanson (eds.), Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, USA.
Rabus, B., M. Eineder, A. Roth, and R. Bamler. (2003). The shuttle radar topography mission – a new class of digital elevation models acquired by spaceborne radar. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 57, 241–262. CrossRef
Ray-Bennett, N. S. (2007). Environmental disasters and disastrous policies: An overview from India. Social Policy and Administration, 41(4), 419–424. CrossRef
SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission). (2006). Shuttle Radar Topography Mission – Finished.http://edc.usgs.gov/products/elevation/srtmbil.html Accessed November 22, 2007.
Smith, K. (1992). Environmental Hazards: Assessing Risk and Reducing Disaster. London: Routledge, p. 324.
TERI (Tata Energy Research Institute). (1996). The Economic Impact of a One Meter Sea Level Rise on the Indian Coastline: Method and Case Studies. Report submitted to the Ford Foundation.
TIFR (Tata Institute for Fundamental Research). (1999a). The History of Mumbai.http://theory.tifr.res.in/bombay/history/Accessed May 4, 2008.
TIFR (Tata Institute for Fundamental Research). (1999b). The Geography of Mumbai.http://theory.tifr.res.in/bombay/physical/Accessed May 4, 2008.
TNN (Times News Network). (2005a). Mumbai is down under. The Times of India, Thursday July 28, 2005, p. 1.
TNN (Times News Network). (2005b). Could technology have stemmed the tide of Mumbai’s misery? The Times of India, Thursday July 28, 2005, p. 6.
TNN (Times News Network). (2005c). Where’s the government? Public rage against administration spills onto streets. The Times of India, Sunday July 31, 2005, p. 1.
TNN (Times News Network). (2005d). Island city, for real. The Times of India, Thursday July 28, 2005, p. 6.
United Nations, Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. (2006). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2005 Revision. CD-ROM Edition data in digital form POP/DB/WUP/Rev.2005. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/WUP2005/2005wup.htm Accessed April 24, 2008.
USGS EROS (United States Geological Survey – Earth Resources Observation Science). (2006). Satellite Products. http://eros.usgs.gov/products/satellite.html Accessed February 4, 2007.
Weber, C., C. Petropoulou and J. Hirsch. (2005). Urban development in the Athens metropolitan area using remote sensing data with supervised analysis and GIS. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 26(4), 785–796. CrossRef
White, G. F. (1964). Choice of Adjustment to Floods. Department of Geography Research Paper No. 93. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, p. 149.
Wilbanks, T. J., J. T. Ensminger, and C. K. Rajan (2007). Climate change vulnerabilities and responses in a developing country city: Lessons from Cochin, India. Environment, 49(5), 22–33.
Zhang, Q., J. Wang, X. Peng, P. Gong, and P. Shi. (2002). Urban built-up land change detection with road density and spectral information from multi-temporal Landsat TM data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 23(15), 3057–3078. CrossRef
Zerah, M.-H. (2007). Conflict between green space preservation and housing needs: The case of the Sanjay Gandhi National Park in Mumbai. Cities, 24(2), 122–132. CrossRef
- Urban Expansion and Sea-Level Rise Related Flood Vulnerability for Mumbai (Bombay), India Using Remotely Sensed Data
- Springer Netherlands
- Chapter 3
Neuer Inhalt/© ITandMEDIA, Product Lifecycle Management/© Eisenhans | vege | Fotolia