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Resource constrained smart micro-grid architectures describe a class of smart micro-grid architectures that handle communications operations over a lossy network and depend on a distributed collection of power generation and storage units. Disadvantaged communities with no or intermittent access to national power networks can benefit from such a micro-grid model by using low cost communication devices to coordinate the power generation, consumption, and storage. Furthermore, this solution is both cost-effective and environmentally-friendly. One model for such micro-grids, is for users to agree to coordinate a power sharing scheme in which individual generator owners sell excess unused power to users wanting access to power. Since the micro-grid relies on distributed renewable energy generation sources which are variable and only partly predictable, coordinating micro-grid operations with distributed algorithms is necessity for grid stability. Grid stability is crucial in retaining user trust in the dependability of the micro-grid, and user participation in the power sharing scheme, because user withdrawals can cause the grid to breakdown which is undesirable. In this chapter, we present a distributed architecture for fair power distribution and billing on micro-grids. The architecture is designed to operate efficiently over a lossy communication network, which is an advantage for disadvantaged communities. We build on the architecture to discuss grid coordination notably how tasks such as metering, power resource allocation, forecasting, and scheduling can be handled. All four tasks are managed by a feedback control loop that monitors the performance and behaviour of the micro-grid, and based on historical data makes decisions to ensure the smooth operation of the grid. Finally, since lossy networks are undependable, differentiating system failures from adversarial manipulations is an important consideration for grid stability. We therefore provide a characterisation of potential adversarial models and discuss possible mitigation measures.
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- A Resilient Smart Micro-Grid Architecture for Resource Constrained Environments
Anne V. D. M. Kayem
Stephen D. Wolthusen
- Chapter 5
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