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## Über dieses Buch

This book presents select proceedings of the international conference on Innovations in Clean Energy Technologies (ICET 2020) and examines a range of durable, energy efficient and next-generation smart green technologies for sustainable future by reflecting on the trends, advances and development taking place all across the globe. The topics covered include smart technologies based product, energy efficient systems, solar and wind energy, carbon sequestration, green transportation, green buildings, energy material, biomass energy, smart cites, hydro power, bio-energy and fuel cell. The book also discusses various performance attributes of these clean energy technologies and their workability and carbon footprint. The book will be a valuable reference for beginners, researchers and professionals interested in clean energy technologies.

## Inhaltsverzeichnis

### Chapter 1. Experimental Investigation of Domestic Refrigerator Used as an Air Conditioner by Augmentation Method

Human comfort demand is raised day to day due to climate change, global warming and other environmental issues. Conventional air conditioners provide the human comfort; however, other side it consumes high electricity. So, main objective of the study is to reduce the power consumption. In this study, the domestic refrigerator compressor is interconnected with separate indoor unit of air conditioner. In addition, also one more capillary tube is augmented with the existing refrigeration unit with air conditioner indoor unit. An attempt has been made to investigate the performance parameters for both cases with four different coiling cabinet volumes of 44.4, 3.41, 2.25 and 1.5 m3. The results showed that more refrigeration effect is achieved with augmented one capillary tube in second case condition and the temperature and relative humidity have obtained as 23 °C and 50%, respectively. The power consumption compared to same capacity of existing air conditioner is obtained with 1/3rd times of power for small cooling cabinet area.

Pankaj P. Gohil, Altafhusen Saiyed

### Chapter 2. Stabilizing Molten Salts Through Additives for High Temperature CSP Applications

Solar salt, an equimolar concentration of KNO3 and NaNO3 is currently being used as the heat transfer fluid in concentrating solar power plants. It decomposes around 600 °C. Hitec® salt, another potential salt mixture, is not stable beyond 538 °C. There has been work directed toward improving its high temperature stability of Hitec® salt by adding a chloride component. It was observed that the stability of the mixture increased by 50 °C enabling its use at temperatures above 600 °C. A new ternary mixture comprising of Ca(NO3)2–KNO3–NaNO3 termed as “Base salt” was prepared in the lab which has a significantly lower freezing temperature (145 °C), and the high temperature stability is above 600 °C. In the current work, additions of other components like NaCl, KCl, LiCl, and CaCl2 in various proportions were done to the Base salt and the thermogravimetric studies were carried out in a custom-made TGA set up to analyze any further improvement in high temperature stability of the mixture. Among all the chloride additions, 5% sodium chloride (NaCl) and 5% NaCl + 5% KCl addition by weight to the Base salt proved to be most promising.

Siddhesh C. Pawar, Varun Shrotri, Luckman Muhmood

### Chapter 3. Impact of Various Heterogeneous Catalysts on the Production of Biodiesel

The world which we are momentarily breathing in is wavering every single day. At this point, we are subjected to rapid urbanization and because of it, there is always a need for energy as the augmentation of our realm and its prosperity hinges on the growth of energy. Thus, to encompass the energy which remains almost always insatiate to us, we depend on various fossil fuels to meet the energy demands to support our economic and social growth in the time of global precariousness exchange. Though we have used fossil fuels to allocate the energy around the globe as its requirement is increasing, it is becoming a rather daunting task for us to even have a quality life. Therefore, it is time now to look for alternate sources of energy which could replace fossil fuels that too at a decent price and lasts us for a longer period. A viable answer to our misery can be biodiesel. This fuel can be fabricated even utilizing waste frying oils by incorporating a varied variety of catalysts to accelerate the production of propellant. Also, various researches aid that it is capable to alleviate various greenhouse gases which are primarily present in our globe's environment. This review focuses on the work of various researchers who toiled over biodiesel manufacture via transesterification. Based on different doings, using heterogeneous catalysts for the synthesis of biofuel can be a better way as it is environmentally friendly. Moreover, this benign need no washing from water and separation of product from the catalyst is rather simpler. This current paper is a survey of the advances made in the growth and progression of heterogeneous catalysts which can be befitting for the manufacture of biodiesel.

Gaurav Dwivedi, Deviprasad Samantaray, Swayamsidha Pati, Suyasha Pandey, Ambar Gaur

### Chapter 4. Investigations on the Use of Molten Oxides for High Temperature Heat Transfer in Solar Power Plants

The current drive for replacing conventional energy with renewables has put a huge demand on solar energy. Solar thermal technologies have greater potential to deliver this energy demand. However, at present, the heat transfer fluids used in concentrating solar power (CSP) plants include molten salts which have a relatively low decomposition temperature (<600 °C), putting constraints on the maximum temperature, the plant can operate. This is the limiting factor for maximum efficiency that can be obtained in the Rankine cycle of the power block. The authors have conducted experiments to test the feasibility of a molten oxide mixtures comprising of B2O3–SiO2 as heat transfer fluid for temperatures higher than the maximum operating temperature of the existing heat transfer fluids. The viscosity, melting point, and the thermal stability of this oxide mixture have been experimentally measured. The lowest viscosity of the system was found to be 428 cP at 1350 °C and a weight loss of 6% between 800 and 1000 °C. The effect of adding 5 and 10% Na2O to the binary oxide mixture has also been experimentally measured. The paper also discusses possible technological modification which could be investigated in order to use this mixture in the concentrating solar power plants.

Varun Shrotri, Luckman Muhmood

### Chapter 5. Non-invasive Measurement of Oxygenated Hemoglobin (SpO2) and Blood Pressure

In present days, the routine health checkups compulsorily include the total hemoglobin value and blood pressure (BP) for every individual irrespective of their illness. These two are the basic factors to be accurate for every person to be healthy. Total hemoglobin value determines whether a person is anemic and the blood pressure points if an individual is stress-free or with hypertension. Hemoglobin can be monitored using oxygenated hemoglobin (SpO2) percentage. At present, there is no device that is used to monitor both SpO2 and BP. In the present work, SpO2 and BP are calculated using the same graphical user interface (GUI) in MATLAB. The protein content available in blood is hemoglobin which is used to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide from lungs to different parts of the body and vice versa. SpO2 and BP are calculated using IR sensors of two different wavelengths and a compatible photodetector using the photo-plethysmography (PPG) technology and MATLAB to calculate systolic and diastolic pressure and SpO2 percentage in blood. The work can be useful in rural areas where hospital facilities are not available.

Rajendra Naik Bhukya, Shoban Mude, G. Sneha

### Chapter 6. Investigation and Simulation of Rooftop Solar Photovoltaic System

Solar energy is an important source of renewable sources. Solar energy being abundant in the nature can easily meet the current global need for clean and renewable energy sources. Solar energy has is in phase of development in order to meet and compete with other sources in terms of cost, efficiency and performance. Using rooftop solar is one of the promising sources of energy in India. Thus, this work addresses the problems faced by the rooftop solar sector in the Indian market. Design of a PV system is shown in order to run the simulation in PV system to understand the potential of one rooftop solar PV system and to explain its benefits. The work also addresses the problems associated with rooftop solar PV system can be tackled, and a proper system for having the most efficient possible design is established. The work will simplify the processes involved in planning of a solar PV system.

Arun K. Behura, Spandan Shah, Aman Kumar, Gaurav Dwivedi

### Chapter 7. Wood Plastic Composite: Emerging Material for an Environmental Safety—A Review

Nowadays, main concern of our society is to recycle the plastic products. So as to overcome this issue, a new material named as ‘Wood Plastic Composite’ is emerging in the market. Some of the good characteristics of this material are biodegradability, recyclability, low manufacturing cost, high chemical resistivity, high strength to weight proportion, fire resistance, and high stiffness to weight proportion. Wood Plastic Composite is the better substitution for ‘pure wood’ and ‘pure plastics’ therefore find application in various fields like—aeroplane, automotive, electrical, sports, packaging, furnitures, decking, fencing, landscaping, ceiling, room partition, etc. Wood Plastic Composite is an eco-friendly material which also reduces the exhaustion of petroleum resources and also reduces the emission of CO2. This paper presents various types of reinforcements and various types of matrix that could be used to make number of combinations for building Wood Plastic Composite. Various manufacturing techniques are also discussed in this paper. Remarkable contribution of various authors in this field are also illustrated. It was concluded that recycled wood and recycled plastics both could be used to form a Wood Plastic Composite material which will going to reduce many environmental issues.

Nidhi Dwivedi, Amit Prem Khare, Shamsul Haq

### Chapter 8. Selection of Heat Exchanger Based on Performance and Applications for Efficient Heat Transfer

This paper presents the design and working efficiency of various kinds of heat exchangers (HEs) and different methods of enhancing heat transfer rate in HEs that will help in the selection of proper HEs based on performance and applications. The main objective is to study possible techniques for enhancing heat transfer rate at a cost of some pressure loss. The aim of this study is to understand some thermodynamic features of compact heat exchangers presented by numerical and experimental investigation for efficient designing. Effect of fin spacing, fin and tube pattern, its arrangements, waffle design, use of nanofluids, application of ultrasonic vibration on heat transfer performance is widely discussed. Modern techniques like using nanofluids can improve thermal performance factor up to 40%, and similarly, using ultrasonic vibration in smaller sized HEs, improvement effect in heat transfer rate can be observed up to 1.6 times. Pressure drop reduction for various cases is also discussed in brief. This paper will help researchers for designing efficient and innovative heat exchangers with enhanced thermal performance. The study also aimed to provide some basic ideas for the selection of different HEs for various applications and important selection criteria required. Future scope of study based on the contents of the paper discussed here can be investigations of innovative HE designs, mechanisms of heat enhancement methods discussed, combined techniques for further improved heat transfer rate in HEs, etc.

Kumari Deepika, R. M. Sarviya

### Chapter 9. Review on Conventional and Advanced Sliding Mode Control Schemes for Uncertain Dynamic System

Precise control of any nonlinear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) uncertain system is very essential due to its wide range of applications in domestic, automation, space exploration, military, medical, etc. This paper illustrates the various nonlinear robust control methodologies used in different applications, depending on the requirements. The comparative analysis is exhibited to show the effectiveness of advanced fractional-order adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller (SMC) because the traditional control methodologies have poor performance and are unable to deal with uncertainties and disturbances present in the system. The advanced hybrid control methodology is superior in performance providing robustness and reliability compared to other conventional SMC methodologies. This advanced control methodology deals with unknown uncertainties and external disturbances by automatically estimating and updating the dynamic system’s parameters. The amalgamation of adaptive control with fuzzy fractional-order proportional integral derivative (FOPID)-SMC estimates the upper bounds of system uncertainties. It provides faster convergence and chatter-free response to enhance system performance.

Shailu Sachan, Pankaj Swarnkar

### Chapter 10. Modeling and Simulation of a Spiral Type Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T) Water Collector Using ANSYS

A solar hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) is a combination of solar photovoltaic (PV) panel and thermal collector. In this research paper, with the help of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique, 3D simulation of the spiral type PV/T water collector has been done to find the efficiency of this type of system and also comparison of its electrical efficiency with simple photovoltaic panel. In the present work, the fluid flow and heat transfer in the module is studied using the ANSYS18.0 workbench software. The heat transfer phenomenon between the PV cells layer and the water is modeled using the FLUENT software, while only heat transfer phenomenon with natural convection of PV cells layer is simulated using the steady-state thermal software. The transfer of heat by the solar radiation is not modeled; only different heat fluxes are considered on PV cells layer. The geometric model for the CFD analysis is made using ANSYS software DesignModeler, and meshing is carried out by ANSYS meshing software. Maximum electrical efficiency is found on 99 L/h and 800 W/m2 heat flux, and maximum value of hot water output is 333.16 K on 16.5 L/h and 1000 W/m2 heat flux. Also, there is a steep decrement in temperature of water outlet from collector when flow rate changes from 16.5 to 33 L/h flow rate and after 66 L/h temperature variation with increasing flow rate is not significant. So, a more increment of flow rate will not affect very much on electrical efficiency. For optimal power, we should run system between 33 and 66 L/h of flow rate.

Naimish Kumar Baranwal, Mukesh Kumar Singhal

### Chapter 11. Development of Correlation for Efficiency of Incineration Plants Using Deep Neural Network Model

In the present era, production of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become unrestrained due to rapid growth in population and urbanization. Therefore, people are facing various challenges such as health and environmental safety. But, this huge potential of MSW can be used as a promising source for electricity production to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Incineration is well-known technique which has been extensively used to produce economically affordable energy from MSW. The purpose of the incineration plant is to get the maximum desirable outputs (heat and power) out of waste and minimize undesirable outputs (emissions and bottom ash). The value of heat or power recovered from waste burning in incineration plant depends on the heating value of the waste. Determining this heating value of each waste sample has been considered as complex and time consuming task due to different moisture, ash, and chemical composition. Under the present study, an attempt has been made to develop a correlation to calculate efficiency of the plant using composition of waste. In order to develop this correlation, concept of deep neural network model from machine learning has been used in this paper. The developed application may be useful for plant design engineer to predict the performance of plant for given range of parameters.

Deepuphanindra Gannamani, Anuj Kumar

### Chapter 12. Smart Grid Initiatives Towards Sustainable Development: Indian and Worldwide Scenario

The electrical power sector globally is experiencing an advanced evolution and expansion of the conventional electrical grid. This transformation is in response to the advanced technologies and the latest environmental policies. The conventional grid has many alarming problems associated with it such as harmful emissions, poor efficiency, poor reliability, poor monitoring and control, lacking smart field devices and sensors, etc. Thus, the smart grid has evolved as a vital tool to address the shortcomings of the conventional power grid with increased reliability, efficacy, security, and sustainability. However, the implementation of smart grid technologies has been a challenging issue. The electricity regulatory commissions (ERCs) of the respective countries are undergoing frequent amendments in the electricity regulating policies and standards. Thus, to assess the impact of initiatives taken in the implementation of smart grid policies requires comprehensive analysis. This work presents a review of the initiatives undertaken by the electricity regulating utilities for the prolific implementation of smart grid technologies. Various policies and measures taken by the respective countries are also presented in this work, enlisting the objective of each measure.

Sumeet K. Wankhede, Priyanka Paliwal, Mukesh K. Kirar

### Chapter 13. Development and Performance Analysis of Pine Needle Based Downdraft Gasifier System

Today's Indian situation is facing an unprecedented energy crisis as India's mainstream sources of energy continue to deteriorate with the limited stock of natural minerals posing a serious threat to the Indian economy. Out of available renewable sources of energy, biomass proves to be in satisfactory position for compensating voids for these natural resources. The present study deals with the performance analysis of throat less downdraft gasifier using pine needle as a feedstock material. The study investigates the various design modifications to allow efficient gasification of low-density fuel such as pine needle to eliminate the problem of agglomeration and channeling associated with it. In the present study, a comparison has been made between the performances of two type of grate design, i.e., flat plate and conical grate coupled with agitator rod and their combined effect on the flow rate of gases. The experiments and characterization of pine needle have been carried out at TERI Gram, New Delhi. It has been experimentally observed that by replacing flat grate with conical grate combined with agitator rod, the results got significantly improved. The results show 99.18% and 154.64% reduction in tar and dust, respectively. On the other hand, the gas flow rate and overall combustion efficiency improved by 59.07% and 62.5%, respectively.

Abhishek Agrawal, Divyanshu Sood

### Chapter 14. Indian Energy Scenario and Smart Grid Development

Energy demand post independence has faced a consistent pace with the growth of Indian economy. To maintain the national energy balance with sustainable development, it is time for various alternative energy resources with advanced devices like smart meters, smart grid model, etc., are implemented through different pilot projects only while the household is often underestimated it. India has aim to produce 175 GW energy through renewable energy power mix to reach the electricity to the all households at cheaper cost, and decentralization of smart grid-based system is needed to implement nationwide. This article represents a comprehensive study of present energy scenario in India, different energy policies which are associated with electricity generation, prospect of nationwide smart grid development.

Kunal Chakraborty, Sanchita Mukherjee, Samrat Paul

### Chapter 15. Applications of Machine Learning in Harnessing of Renewable Energy

Nonrenewable sources of energy are depleting rapidly as the ratio of their consumption is higher than its reproduction as it takes millions of years to replenish, high demand, and utilization in agriculture and industries have affected the environment drastically. To fulfill the growing demand and necessity of energy for the continuous process of production and manufacturing promoted the use of renewable sources of energy, but renewable sources of energy need more development to be used with its full potential despite its massive availability. Fortunately, evolution in artificial intelligence has conferred scientists and developers to come up with several methods and improvements in the effective, efficient, and optimized usage renewable energy sources. This paper explores the areas of machine learning application for the effective harnessing of renewable energy sources such as wind energy, geothermal energy, solar energy, and wave energy.

Chris Daniel, Anoop Kumar Shukla, Meeta Sharma

### Chapter 16. Optimization of Tilt Angles for Solar Devices to Gain Maximum Solar Energy in Indian Climate

Availability of maximum solar radiation can be ensured by optimizing the tilt angles for a given location. Most of the optimization techniques are based on the available theoretical models. Keeping this in view, tilt angles were optimized for composite climate (Nagpur and Delhi) and hot and dry climate (Jodhpur), India, using actual solar radiation data of India Meteorological Department (IMD). The optimization of tilt angle is done by establishing a polynomial relation between tilt angle and solar radiation data for annual, bi-annual, seasonal, bi-monthly, and monthly tilts. The optimum tilt angles for New Delhi and Nagpur were found as Φ − 5° and Φ + 4°, respectively, while for Jodhpur it was Φ + 4° for south facing. The highest solar radiation was predicted for monthly tilt. However, total solar radiation for bi-annual tilt was also found very close to that of monthly optimum. According to the analysis carried out, it is recommended to have bi-annual tilt (zero tilt from April to September and 42°–49° degree tilt from October to March).

Digvijay Singh, A. K. Singh, S. P. Singh, Surendra Poonia

### Chapter 17. A Novel Concept of ‘Parapet Farming’ Using ‘Living Chain’ Hanging System Integrated with Drip Irrigation Technique

Requirement of floor space and investment of time and effort toward caring plants are the two key factors standing bar to popularization of rooftop gardening/farming. Use of parapets on the rooftop for gardening/farming might be a good idea but not with the available options of vertical gardening due to reasons aplenty. Voluminous renovations involved in planting the vertical ‘Green Wall’ module which is difficult (impossible at times) to remove/relocate, difficulty to reach out to plants/pots hanging faraway for harnessing/trimming are the problem areas in applying the existing vertical gardening techniques to rooftop farming. The subject concept implemented through the proposed system not only eliminates all these impediments but also minimizes the plant care needs, thus maximizing the flexibility and popularity of household gardening even in the busy city/urban life. Considering the prospective farming capacity on both sides of the parapet of an average size rooftop, the concept poses a game changer in the next generation Green Building initiative.

Dibyendu Bhowmick, Shilpi Saha

### Chapter 18. Implementation of Control Strategy for PV-Powered Switched Reluctance Motor Drive for Pumping Applications

The grail of this paper is to investigate the performance of solar-powered water pump using switched reluctance motor drive and also single-phase grid. The converter used is boost converter, and a rectifier is connected to the grid along with an input filter. The switched reluctance motor is 8/6 pole with a mid-point converter. There are three different controls used for each block in this system. The maximum power point tracking is used for generating pulses for solar-powered boost converter; the bidirectional power flow control is used for generating pulses to the rectifier and finally direct torque control for operating the motor in the closed loop. The interfacing of grid is important to ensure continuous water supply in the absence of solar energy. There is an input filter at the single-phase grid to reduce the ripples present in the system. The proposed system deals with the design, modelling and simulation using MATLAB/Simulink environment. The applicability of this system can be analysed by the simulated results.

T. Sai Rakshitha, E. Shiva Prasad, D. S. G. Krishna, K. Sravani

### Chapter 19. Experimental Investigation of Equilateral Triangle-Shaped Solar Air Heater with Two Blackened Absorber Surfaces

The present experimental work conducts the CFD analysis and numerical investigation for finding the efficiencies of solar air heater with triangular-shaped duct design. The efficiencies are calculated considering the solar intensity and varying ambient conditions at different time of the day. Present work shows triangular-shaped duct solar air heater having black paint-coated absorber plates on two of its surfaces while the third surface is used as glass plate. Also the CFD analysis of the heat transfer phenomena occurring between absorber plate and air is carried out taking the solar radiation intensity available at 13:00 h time in Jaipur. The parameters calculated in this investigation of heat transfer are glazing temperature, absorber surface mean temperature, efficiency, and heat transfer rate. The maximum rise in efficiency is obtained at a mass flow rate of 0.01911 kg/s. The CFD analysis result shows that the efficiency increases with increase in air mass flow rate and experimental investigation results indicate that lesser the velocity of flowing fluid, the more is the efficiency.

Rahul Kumar, Shri Krishna Mishra, Hitesh Kumar, Rachit Saxena, Anoop Kumar Pathariya

### Chapter 20. Experimental Investigation, Exergy Analysis, and CFD Simulation of Solar Air Heater Roughened with Artificial V-Shaped Ribs on Absorber Surface Artificial Roughness on Absorber Plate

The heat transfer and enhancement of thermal efficiency of a V-shaped rib solar air heater were numerically investigated. Thermal efficiency has been calculated for a solar air heater with absorber surface having artificial roughness in the form of 30° inclined ribs. Two models have been created by taking pitch of inclined ribs as 15 and 20 mm, respectively, on the upper side of absorber surface. Comparison of results for two different rib pitch parameters 15 and 20 mm and heat transfer result. Numerical calculations were performed for various geometrical parameters of the solar duct and focused on the enhancement of maximum heat transfer rate. The maximum value of efficiency is obtained for the model having 15 mm pitch is 43.8% while for the model with 20 mm, pitch is 40.7%. The average value of efficiency is increased to 4.26% for both models when compared with results for smooth absorber surface. The glazing glass cover temperature and temperature of absorber surface are maximum for Model-I at solar intensity 1180–1250 W/m2 on the time slot 12:30–1:30 h. The exergy analysis shows that exergy value increases with the increase in solar intensity as the time of day for both models. To validate the results obtained through experiments and to analyze flow phenomena above absorber surface, the CFD analysis is done. The temperature difference obtained is 50 K.

Shri Krishna Mishra, Rahul Kumar, Renu Joshi, Hitesh Kumar, Nishant Saxena

### Chapter 21. Energy Generation and Management for Rural Areas of Rajasthan Through Solar Photovoltaic System

In this paper, novel software has been developed to analyze the solar energy and its use for the generation of electricity. Rajasthan has abundant solar energy for power generation. The software designed is used for the estimation of solar radiation at remote areas, and through that data, the total power that can be obtained can be approximated. It is a very simple application of C++ programming which will be directly used in computing the solar energy production. For computing this calculation, from various districts of Rajasthan state, the data was collected for 20 areas which have large solar radiation. Estimation of solar radiation and computation of the total radiation was evaluated using latitude and longitude. The software program is developed by using input variables like regression constant, declination angle, monthly average global radiation, and latitude angle, and the value of total probable energy through solar radiation can be automatically generated.

Rachit Saxena, Sonal Saxena, Hitesh Kumar, Shri Krishna Mishra, Rahul Kumar

### Chapter 22. Analyzing Effects of Camber and Its Position on Various Parameters in NACA Designated Aerofoil Blades Under Dynamic Similarity

As the world`s current conventional energy resources are going to extinct after a few years, so the world is emphasizing more on the alternative resources of energy and in that process researchers have to move on toward non-traditional energy resources which mainly consists of solar and wind energy. Wind speeds can achieve values of 10–12 m/s at windy spots. These high wind speeds can be used to harvest energy by installing typically three blades of a wind turbine. The blade geometry is made such that it generates lift from the wind and thus rotates. The basic characteristic which defines the power harnessing capability of a wind turbine is their lift and drag characteristics which mainly depend on the geometry, i.e., profile of turbine blade. Here, different NACA 4 digit aerofoil profiles based on their lift and drag force coefficient have been compared under dynamic similarity, i.e., keeping Reynolds number as constant by using ANSYS workbench 14.0. As it is known that symmetrical blade profiles do not produce any lift at strike angle of 0°, but cambered blades do have some lift even at 0° strike angle. Thus, finding the values of lift and drag force coefficient by two means: (1) Varying camber percentage and keeping its position as constant (NACA0015, NACA2415, NACA3415, NACA4415, NACA5415), (2) varying camber position but keeping camber percentage as constant (NACA0015, NACA4215, NACA4315, NACA4415, NACA4515) at different angles of attack of 0°, 2°, and 4°. In this paper, all these eight NACA 4 digit series profiles have been compared to find out the profile which possess better aerodynamic characteristics.

Rohit Gupta, Prashant Baredar, Sanjeev Kumar Bhukesh

### Chapter 23. Design of Closed-Loop Control of a Three-Phase Sine Wave Inverter Using High Gain DC–DC Converter for Renewable Energy Applications

Power electronics converter and inverter are simultaneously utilized in three-phase system as they are immensely dedicated toward the gradual advancement of technologies on renewable energy sources like solar, wind, etc. In this paper, a high gain DC–DC converter is implemented in order to convert the voltage obtained from solar cells to a high voltage at desirable limit and it will optimize low voltage, so that it can be directly applied to a three-phase inverter. Coupled-inductor topology is implemented with advanced PI controller-based closed-loop control mechanism of the proposed converter where the adjustment of duty cycle along with capacity to withstand the variation of supply performed efficiently. A three-phase voltage source inverter is connected to proposed converter which converts the DC power obtained from proposed converter into AC power. The proposed inverter output has reached its expected value for three-phase applications without further stepping up the voltage using transformer as the converter output voltage is high enough. The complete system is developed and simulated for R and R–L type of loads. After performing fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis, the harmonic content present in the inverter output voltage and current signal is shown as total harmonic distortion (THD). To meet (IEEE 519) specified standards, a suitable L–C filter is designed accordingly. The output voltage of the inverter is maintained nearly constant with the help of closed-loop control technique. The simulation is tested for different loading conditions, and for each case, output voltage attained its desired value. Thus, the overall simulation of the proposed system shows dynamic stability and sustainability in order to operate on renewable energy applications effectively in long run.

Pranjit Kumar Roy, Pradip Kumar Saha, Ashoke Mondal

### Chapter 24. Effect of the Cool Roof on the Indoor Temperature in a Non-conditioned Building of Hot–Dry Climate

The solar reflectance and absorbance of the roof surface are two significant factors affecting the thermal performance of non-conditioning buildings. Based on the qualitative analysis, the cool roof (color paint) effect analyzed in terms of indoor temperature. The maximum heat gain entered in the buildings during summer leads to higher energy consumption throughout the summer. Eight composite roof structures with cool paints layer and one without cool paint layer as the base case analyzed for the summer months of April–July. Fourier admittance method used to evaluate hourly floating temperature for roofs treated with cool paints. A simulation study carried out to obtain optimal roof structure for hot–dry climate, Jodhpur and roof structure (RS-6) with concrete, mortar, and cool coating paint combinations found most suitable in terms of minimum variation of indoor temperature. The simulation result indicates that all roof structures with cool roof performed better than roofs without cool roof.

Mohan Rawat, R. N. Singh, S. P. Singh

### Chapter 25. Comparison Analysis of Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques for a Solar Photovoltaic System

When the world turns out to be modern, fuel tapping is also growing, and this indiscriminate tapping is on the verge of putting an end to fossil fuels and has become a cause of crisis for many environmentalist. The foregoing considerations have driven the choice of mankind in the use of renewable energy. Well, there are numerous renewable resources available, but solar energy has always been the subject of discussion among all these resources because it is available almost everywhere on earth and its conversion into electricity is easy with the use of solar panels, but this method of converting energy has also become abundant in its many limitations, such as low conversion efficiency and contortion. In addition, it also demonstrates an inability to automatically produce the full available power. This calls for more effective material for more suitable performance, yet more usable material work is still under way than the content currently in use of these purposes, rigorous research is being exhorted to obtain the maximum power possible from the solar panel. The solar cells are costly, and its efficiency is low, so it becomes necessary to harvest the maximum available power, so in this work, P&O and INC techniques are employed to track the maximum power point under static as well as dynamic conditions. Here, boost converter is employed for the power conversion stage. Performance analysis of INC and P&O MPPT techniques is being studied here. Also, to validate the result, a comparison has been made between these two conventional MPPT techniques which reflect the superiority of INC methodology over the P&O method, for most extreme power and efficiency.

Vivek Kumar, Archana Soni, Markapuram Srinivasa Rao, Sanjeev Kumar Bhukesh

### Chapter 26. Effect on Solar PV Panel Performance Due to Varying Latitude in Northern Hemisphere

In the field of renewable energy, solar energy plays a major role in power generation. This study also focuses on the parameters of the PV panel which affect the efficiency of the PV panel. The optimum tilt angle and the factors like solar radiation and location’s latitude on which it depends are also considered in this study. The optimum tilt angle of 20 different sites in the northern hemisphere at different latitudes is found out through the software such as SolarGIS and PVsyst, and comparison is done between the power generation at optimum tilt angle and latitude’s location. The optimization of the tilt angle which is done by varying tilt angle to maximum solar irradiation. The optimum tilt angle of summer and winter season is also calculated and analyzed to maximize the incident solar radiation. The correlation coefficient between the location’s latitude and the optimum tilt angle is tilt through SolarGIS which is 0.953 and 0.972 in PVsyst.

Pooja Rawat, Archana Soni

### Chapter 27. Vibration Analysis of Rotating Machines: A Case Study

Vibration has been the most common challenges in the industries and machine for fatigue and before life failure. There may be many causes that arise as vibration. In this paper, common roots of vibration have been studied. The failure of machine is detected before failure, then some maintenance can be provided to machine to increase life cycle. Different industries contain the balancing problems, misalignment issues, and resonance, which we removed by balancing, alignment across coupling, and dynamic vibration absorbers. A case is presented of manufacturers and exporters of dyes and pigments, which is placed in Mahad, Maharashtra. The shaft that couple the hammer mill always keep rotating which produces the mechanical vibration. Present investigation studied the common causes that produce vibrations in rotating machines. Every machinery problem produces specific spectrum pattern, and these problems are identified with frequency and phase analysis. This paper explains in details about frequency analysis, phase analysis, unbalancing, and procedure of balancing. This paper presents the guideline for researcher to perform balancing the any rotary machine with effective way.

Atul Gautam, Pramod Kumar Sharma, Prashant Baredar, Vilas Warudkar, J. L. Bhagoria, Siraj Ahmed, Sagar Balkrishna Sutar

### Chapter 28. Estimation of Energy Generation and Daylight Availability for Optimum Solar Cell Packing Factor of Building Integrated Semitransparent Photovoltaic Skylight

The semitransparent PV (STPV) module apart from energy generation is also beneficial in providing daylight inside the building. In this paper, mathematical expressions were used for estimating the daylight illuminance (lx) and electricity generation (kWh) through the STPV skylight for the composite climate of New Delhi (28.7041° N, 77.1025° E) at various packing factor (β) (0.4 to 0.9) of the solar cells. Further seasonal optimum (βopt) is predicted for appropriate daylight and electricity generation, which found in the range from 0.57 to 0.62. The appropriate illuminance of above 300 lx and maximum hourly generation of 40–65 W for 5–7 h are obtained for the β of 0.62.

Digvijay Singh, S. P. Singh

### Chapter 29. Optimal Design and Techno-Economic Analysis of a Microgrid for Community Load Applications

The energy demand is increasing day by day, and fossil fuels are depleting; it is necessary to tap the untapped renewable energy to meet the increasing energy demand. For effective utilization of renewable energy, it is imperative to design and develop the community-level microgrids. Thus, this paper intends the optimal design of a community-level microgrid for available load at BMS College of Engineering, Bengaluru, India. The proposed microgrid consists of hybrid renewable energy sources, such as solar PV, wind turbine, battery storage, and diesel generator. To maintain the reliability of the power supply and to meet the peak load demand during the peak load hours, a diesel generator is proposed. The proposed microgrid is modeled, optimized, and simulated by using the hybrid optimization model for multiple energy resources (HOMER). The levelized cost of energy (LCOE), the net present cost (NPC), and operating cost (OC) are considered for the economic analysis and modeling of microgrid. In autonomous mode, the LCOE, NPC, and OC are estimated as 0.319 $/kWh (22.33 ₹/kWh),$4881,583 (₹341,710,810), and $12,519.34 (₹876,353.8) while in grid-connected mode, the LCOE, NPC, and OC are estimated as 0.0534$/kWh (3.738 ₹/kWh), $128,621 (₹9,003,470), and$144.84(₹10,138.8), respectively. Further optimum size of the proposed microgrid is also presented. Furthermore, the obtained results are compared with existing models and found that the designed system is superior in terms of cost and sizing.

Venkatesh Boddapati, S. Arul Daniel

### Chapter 30. Effectiveness of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalyst on Biodiesel Yield: A Review

Biodiesel is getting the attention of researchers due to its low cost and renewability. Researchers have done much work in the field of biodiesel production and its performance on engine. The effect of catalyst on transesterification reaction plays an important in terms of biodiesel yield and quality. Therefore, it is important to investigate the effect of catalyst quality and characteristics on transesterification reaction. In view of the same, the present paper deals with a review on effect of different heterogeneous and homogeneous catalyst on the biodiesel yield. The work of various past researchers has been compared. It is found that homogeneous catalyst gives better results in low temperatures however the heterogeneous catalyst needs high temperature for preprocessing however heterogeneous catalyst can be used again and again.

Bharat Singh, Siddharth Jain, Brijesh Gangil

### Chapter 31. Experimental Analysis of a Generator Set Operating on Di Diesel Fuel and Ethanol Fumigation at Different Loads

The sizable global use of fossil energy and the worries about harmful emissions to the environment and human health have led investigations focused on the use of renewable fuels. Ethanol seems to be a desirable renewable fuel due to availability and significant production. The ethanol fumigation in compression ignition engines has been explored as a possible solution to enhance efficiency and decrease pollutant gases. This study investigates the effects of a generator set running on directly injected diesel fuel containing 7% of biodiesel in volume and port fuel injected hydrous ethanol in different loads. The experiments were performed in a diesel engine with distinct loads, and the ethanol substitution rate ranged from 9 to 52% by energy. Results showed a significant decrease up to 61% in smoke opacity. An improvement of 9.7% at 7.0 kW in global thermal efficiency was observed. Nevertheless, the efficiency of the other loads deteriorated, resulting in a maximum decrease of about 14.6% at 4.0 kW. The specific fuel consumption increased when ethanol was used, whereas the exhaust gas temperature decreased. The lowest NOx emissions found were 290 ppm at 6.0 kW and ethanol energy ratio of 21%, although an increase in CO emissions was observed.

J. Ramachander, S. K. Gugulothu, G. Ravikiran Sastry, S. Rafiuzzama

### Chapter 32. Optimizing the Yield of Biodiesel Made from Waste Soybean Oil by Varying the Temperatures and Volumetric Ratios of Oil and Methanol

The booming interest of oils and fading of their sources has allured the scientists to work on renewable sources to substitute it. For now, oils like diesel have the best replacement which is biodiesel. It not only relieves the stress on life around which is caused by diesel but also provides an effective way of the disposal of waste cooking oil since it is one of the primal used to make the product. In this project, biodiesel is obtained from waste cooking oil (soybean) by base-catalyzed transesterification reaction with a different volumetric ratio of CH3OH and oil at various temperatures, hence evaluated the optimal ratios to get the best possible product for different volumetric ratios and temperatures.

Mandar Chikhalikar, Srinivasa Rao Markapuram, Rushikesh Kamble, Bhupen Tiwari, Kavita Gidwani

### Chapter 33. Smart Agricultural Robot with Real-Time Data Analysis Using IBM Watson Cloud Platform

Numerous improvements in technology have made the agriculture business a much slighter labor-intensive industry. Farmers are looking for new approaches to use technology to cut costs and reduce labor hours. The Internet of things (IoT) has brought an uprising revolution to many fields of common man’s life by making everything intelligent, perceptive, smart, and trained. The agricultural robot being presented via this research paper is integrated with Arduino, NodeMCU, different types of sensors, cloud computing platform, and Blynk technology. The proposed research work is a simple architecture of IoT-based sensors which collect information related to the farm and send it over to the Wi-Fi network to the IBM cloud on a real-time basis. The data further is stored in IBM Cloudant which can later be used by anyone for further analytics. As an extra feature to the proposed work, a chatbot has also been created using our data and some additional data to assist the farmer with fertilizers and suggestions for farmland based on the data acquired by the robot.

Prathyusha Thatipelli, R. Sujatha

### Chapter 34. SPWM Control Scheme for CHB-MLI with Minimal Voltage THD

Various level shifting-sinusoidal pulse width modulation (LS-SPWM) control schemes for the five-level cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter (CHB-MLI) are presented in this paper. A five-level multilevel inverter working principle is explained with switching table. Phase disposition (PD), phase opposition disposition (POD), and alternate phase opposition disposition (APOD) modulation schemes are compared among them. Output voltage total harmonic distortion has been taken as a quality measuring constraint and the THD is measured in two ways, those are Nyquist form and maximum to maximum frequency form. As two constraints can be varied in the SPWM control schemes, they are modulation index and carrier frequency. First the carrier frequency has been kept constant at 3150 Hz and modulation index has been varied from under modulation to over modulation and noticed that at what modulation index the obtained THD is minimum for each control scheme. In a second step at critical modulation the carrier wave frequency has been varied and found that at which frequency the obtained THD is minimum for each control scheme. All the results are executed on Simulink platform and are tabulated and compared. With SPWM-APOD the minimum THD is obtained as compared among all the modulation schemes. Among the all carrier-based pulse width modulation (PWM) schemes level shifted PWM schemes are the best suitable for the CHB-MLI. These control schemes produce output pulses which is symmetrical to sinusoidal. Phase disposition (PD), phase opposition disposition (POD), and alternate phase opposition disposition (APOD) modulation schemes are well-known control schemes in the level-shifted PWM schemes. In this paper, a single-phase five-level CHB-MLI is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink software and a detailed comparison of these three modulation schemes simulated at various modulation indexes with fixed carrier frequency and simulated with different carrier frequencies with fixed modulation index at 1 (m = 1) with reference to total harmonic distortion (THD) in the output voltage. It is observed that all the modulation schemes produce the sinusoidal output voltage with minimum THD with under modulation index only (m < 1) and the APOD scheme produces minimum THD as compared with other two schemes. All the modulation schemes produce minimum THD at higher carrier frequencies.

Harish Karneddi, Kavali Janardhan, Aditya Sirsa, Amit Ojha, Sanjeev Singh, Arvind Mittal

### Chapter 35. IoT Communication Technologies for Smart Farming—A Review

Agriculture is the fundamental occupation for millions of lives in India. This sector contributes to a major portion of the GDP of the country to meet the increasing trends in the export sector as well as to meet the demands of the food supply for the rising population. To nourish this enormous populace, the agriculture sector needs to grasp IoT. The interest in more nourishment needs to address defeating difficulties, such as rising environmental change, extraordinary climate conditions, and natural effects that result from concentrated cultivating rehearse. The purpose of our research is to overcome these difficulties by incorporating IoT in agriculture. The devices used in the smart farming update sensed data a few times per hour as the environmental conditions do not change drastically. We have compared the various existing communication technologies and arrived at the best suited for this use case. From the survey we did, we were able to conclude that LoRa is one such technology that satisfies the requirements and conditions of smart agriculture.

Sujatha Rajkumar, Karnan Rajendran, Sailesh Suresh

### Chapter 36. Recurrent Neural Network Analysis for Accurate Extrapolation of the Wind Velocity

When wind data mast measurement campaign starts, only few of anemometers at certain heights can be installed, while there is limitation of mast height due to installation cost. The modern wind turbines are installed at higher heights; therefore, the wind velocity extrapolation is needed to height higher than the mast. Traditional methods have many uncertainties for the estimation of power curve and wind resource assessment in the context of wind shear. This paper presents the recurrent neural network (RNN) analysis for accurate prediction and extrapolation of wind velocities. The wind is extrapolated at the height of 80 m using the wind speed at 20 and 50 m from RNN algorithm and power law method. The algorithm at different hyperparameters is executed but all time the RNN method gives mean square error (MSE) less than power law method. This paper proves that RNN method can be alternative and advance method when compared to power law method.

Atul Gautam, Vilas Warudkar, J. L. Bhagoria

### Chapter 37. Roof Top Agriculture with Rainwater Harvesting and Smart Irrigation System

Throughout today's environment, fundamental requirements including food, water, housing, and energy for citizens are being protected. Power and health are perhaps the most critical requirements. Currently, due to increase in demand, the green lands are converting into concrete structures. People living in urban areas are not having a nutritious food. Farming in urban areas is not possible due to less availability of agriculture land. In urban areas, proper water harvesting methods are not available, leading to wastage of rainwater. So, a need has a raised to preserve water by providing proper water harvesting methods along with an ideal method for growing the crops in urban areas for having a nutritious food to the people living in urban areas. This paper proposes a process to harvest the rainwater along with preparation of agricultural land over the rooftop area. The disadvantages of manual monitoring of agriculture land can be reduced by using this technology. As the methodology suggests, the soil water sensor provides a tool for tracking water levels in fields. The solution is combined with the IoT technology to obtain and run the pump position worldwide. There is less energy available for the portion service. The smart irrigation and water harvesting techniques proposed are demonstrated with a prototype model.

Akkenaguntla Karthik, A. V. Pavan Kumar, T. M. Manohar Reddy, Anumula Amarnath, Banka Sai Reddy

### Chapter 38. A Delay-Sensitive Cyber-Physical System Framework for Smart Health Applications

The cyber-physical system (CPS) is surely an addition associated with real techniques having wrought out and communication. It can increase the cleverness so that you can have social life. Wireless network sensor systems (WSN) may be a main component of the CPS because the enormous sensor capacity is one of the most critical driving factors for CPS applications. CPS is still deemed becoming nascent know-how, and there are lots of difficulties not addressed. In this paper, to design a novel model to detect swine flu disease efficiently, a novel model is proposed. Medical science, at present, is not that efficient in detecting, diagnosing, and controlling the spread of swine flu virus. Therefore, a novel CPS is designed and implemented to detect swine flu disease. Extensive comparative analyses reveal the performance of the proposed model.

Rupinder Kaur, Prabh Deep Singh, Rajbir Kaur, Kiran Deep Singh

### Chapter 39. Analyze and Identify Smart City Applications and Their Existing Frameworks

Smart cities provide services for increasing population density of encompassing residents, their inhabitants, workers, and visitors for making their everyday life easier according to the needs of the city. While cities continue to develop and clean up their social, economic, and environmental priorities and their policies, little work has yet addressed this trend. Nonetheless, because the ideals of smart cities require immediate action and consideration, municipal leaders, developers, and local communities need to recognize their city’s current realities and where the implementation of their structures is being done. In order to achieve such objectives, information and communications technologies are utilized for developing smart city applications. Various smart city frameworks are being developed to enable both the public and private sectors for planning and implementing smart city initiatives in the most effective way. In this paper, various emerging technologies that contribute to building smart city applications are analyzed and identified. The findings help researchers to use these technologies effectively for monitoring and improving their products to build smart city applications. Finally, various smart city architectures are accessed, and a systematic review is presented.

Prabh Deep Singh, Rajbir Kaur

### Chapter 40. Prevention of Intrusion Attacks via Deep Learning Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Network in Smart Cities

Nowadays, there is exponential growth in the field of wireless sensor networks. In WSN’s security is a major concern, since most of communication happen through a wireless media; hence, probability of attacks increases drastically. Intrusion detection as well as prevention measures should be taken for secure communication; hence, observations of intrusion detection and prevention techniques have taken immense precedence in the research field. With the help of intrusion detection and prevention systems, we can categorize the activities of user in two categories, namely normal activities and suspicious activities. There is a need to design effective intrusion detection and prevention system by exploring deep learning for wireless sensor networks. This research aims to deal with proposing algorithms and techniques for intrusion prevention system using deep packet inspection based on deep learning. In this, we have proposed a deep learning model using a convolutional neural network classifier. The proposed model consists of two stages like intrusion detection and intrusion prevention. The proposed model learns useful feature representations from a large amount of labeled data and then classifies them. In this work, a convolutional neural network is used to prevent intrusion for wireless sensor networks. To evaluate and test the effectiveness of the proposed system, a WSN-DS dataset is used, and experiments are conducted on the dataset. The experimental results show that proposed system achieves 97% accuracy and performs substantially better than the existing system. The proposed work can be used as a future benchmark for deep learning and intrusion prevention research communitiesin the smart cities nowadays.

Deepak Choudhary, Roop Pahuja

### Chapter 41. Torque Ripple Reduction of a Solar PV-Based Brushless DC Motor Using Sliding Mode Control and H7 Topology

In this paper, the solar PV-based brushless DC motor (BLDC) torque ripple reduction is reduced using sliding mode control algorithm and H7-based inverter topology. In general, the outer speed control loop of a BLDC motor is controlled using a well-tuned PI controller. This controller will be effective in reducing the dynamic speed error, but will produce large current ripples. This reference current when given to the inner control loop and controlled using Hall effect position sensing technique leads to comparatively large ripples in the torque. Hence, to mitigate this torque ripples in solar PV-based BLDC motor, sliding mode controller is used, which is designed in such a way that, it will effectively control the speed and also produces lesser current ripples reference. Further, the inverter topology uses a seven switch H7 configuration instead of a conventional six switch inverter topology. The results are compared with a PI-based converter with a six switch under variable load torque and variable speed cases in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. The BLDC motor is used as a drive for the electrical transportation vehicle, and performance is observed. It is found that, the torque ripples are reduced effectively without much change in the reference speed. Also, even at lower speeds, the torque ripples and surges are also lesser.

D. V. N. Ananth, D. A. Tatajee

### Chapter 42. Density-Based Smart Traffic Light Control System for Emergency Vehicles

Traffic congestion has become a major problem in the cities where the population and the number of vehicles are continuously increasing. To ensure the safety of people, traffic light systems are incorporated at all necessary intersections of roads. Most of the traffic control systems used are now working based on fixed time for vehicular movement. So, a smart traffic control system is built which changes the waiting time of the vehicles based on situations, conditions, and priorities. Smart traffic system considers the vehicular density and special conditions such as the presence of an emergency vehicle at any of the roads and increases the waiting or clearance time accordingly. The system works such that, more the density of traffic at any side of the road, the longer would be the clearance time of that road with an increase in the duration of green light so as to allow more vehicles to pass through and hence reduce the traffic density. This avoids traffic congestion, wastage of time, and makes the system more efficient. A priority is given to the passage of emergency vehicles to prevent delays due to traffic congestion. So, the system is built such that during the presence of an emergency vehicle, the traffic light remains green till the emergency vehicle passes the signal and then returns to normal working. The system also considers the prevention of accidents and safety of the pedestrians during the night, when the traffic signals have only Amber lights, by use of sensors to detect any presence. The traffic lights along with alarms are used to indicate such presence. The system is built using Proteus software as a simulation tool for single-way and four ways traffic signals. Thus, the proposed work aims for a better and efficient traffic control system.

H. B. Shylashree, Monika Divakar, Neha R. Navada, A. N. Nagashree

### Chapter 43. Development of an Assessment Tool to Review Communication Technologies for Smart Grid in India

On account of reasons like difference in economic location, exposure to climatic conditions, choice of consumers, etc., each smart grid project is unique; however, primarily characterized by critical applications selected for installation. For effective realization of installed critical applications, efficient and timely bi-directional data transfer between various subsystems of smart grid is necessary. Hence, communication system with high quality of service (QoS) is vital and mandatory for reliable smart grid operation. Selection of best-fit communication technology is at the core of the communication network design. This paper presents an assessment approach for evaluating fitness of available communication technology options for intended smart grid installation. The presented approach has been validated by case study of assessment of Indian smart grid pilots and projects. Data rate and latency have been considered as key performance indicators and cost function optimization technique has been chosen for development of the proposed assessment approach. Being simple and customizable, the presented assessment approach could be useful to designers and field engineers.

Jignesh Bhatt, Omkar Jani, V. S. K. V. Harish

### Chapter 44. Simulation and Analysis of Building Integrated Photovoltaic System for Different Climate Zones in India

In the past, electricity use in the construction industry has risen to satisfy the demand and innovation techniques are being built to take advantage of renewable energy sources. The solar energy is the most available green energy supply. Renewable electricity options are the cleanest and decreasing greenhouse gases. Today, the innovative technique used by building designer is building integrated photovoltaic system (BIPV). BIPV is multifunctional components, they are not only use for energy production, and they also used as a cladding, shading devices, facades, and roofing element. BIPV system efficiency often depends on environment and regional conditions, such as solar irradiation, temperature, and altitude. This analyzes the impact of these climatic and geographic influences on the BIPV system. In this paper, six cities (Ahmadabad, Bangalore, Bhopal, Kolkata, Mount Abu, and Srinagar) from six Bansal and Minke climatic zones are selected and the efficiency of the BIPV system in six Indian climatic zones is evaluated by modeling and simulation by taking different parameters like latitude, a tilt angle, an azimuth angle, an environment and solar cell level. PVsyst 7.0 software is used for yearly energy yield calculations.

Priyanka Rai, Archana Soni, Rushikesh Kamble

### Chapter 45. CFD Analysis of Temperature Profile and Pattern Factor at the Exit of Swirl Dump Combustor

The practical challenge in analysis within the field of turbine combustion primarily centers on a clean emission, an occasional liner wall temperature, a standardized exit temperature distribution for turbo machinery applications alongside a fuel economy of the combustion method. Dump combustor may be a form of lean-burning combustor. Lean-burning combustors square measure at risk of combustion instabilities to boot because of non-uniformities within the fuel–air commixture, and within the combustion method, there usually exist hot areas within the combustor exit plane. These hot areas limit the in-operation temperature at the rotary engine body of water and so constrain performance and potency. The present work was directed toward the experimental study of temperature profile at the exit of dump combustor due to the interaction of swirling combustion air and a spray of kerosene fuel issuing from a fuel injector in the cylindrical type dump combustor. The study was done by different values of settling chamber pressure and different fuel flow rate. The effect of equivalence ratio φ, flow velocity, and air mass flow rate is also described. Pattern factor at different equivalence ratios is also observed. Effect of swirl on pattern factor and temperatures at the exit of combustor is described in this report. Flammable limit for the combustor is also calculated. Temperature is recorded with the help of four k-type thermocouples. Thermocouples are placed at the different radial distance from the combustor’s wall. All the testing was performed at limited pressure and limited fuel–air ratio and also for the two different fuel injector with two different positions.

Yogesh Bhawarker, Prakash Katdare, Manish Kale, Hitesh Kumar, Shri Krishna Mishra, Rahul Kumar

### Chapter 46. Determining the Performance Characteristics of a White-Box Building Energy System Model and Evaluating the Energy Consumption

Building energy models are developed to evaluate the energy performance of a particular building design and to develop cost-estimation and energy-saving strategies that can be implemented. Present study develops a methodology where a building energy system model is developed based on the fundamentals of the building energy physics. Both sensible and latent thermal energy transfer processes are considered for development of the building energy model. Performance characteristics of the model are determined by developing a state-space building energy model and then evaluating the step response of the developed white-box model. Settling time, peak time, rising time, steady-state error and overshoot are determined for each state of the building energy system model under study. Modelling methodology adopted shall enable the developer or designer to evaluate the system’s performance before implementing any control strategy which would lead to reduced complexity, cost-reduction in troubleshooting and better stability. Daily, weekly and monthly energy consumed by HVAC and lighting systems of the building energy system model are 16.8, 41.9 and 139.67 kWh, respectively.

V. S. K. V. Harish, Amit Vilas Sant, Arun Kumar

### Chapter 47. Battery Management System with Wireless Parameter Estimation in EV

In order to achieve better performance for a battery unit, an advanced battery management system must be required. Battery management system of an electric vehicles, one of the challenges facing is estimation of battery parameters and transferring the estimated data to BMS unit. This paper introduces wireless technology in battery management system. Using this wireless technology, the sensed data is collected and transferred to the battery management system main controller. Hardware implementation is done for a 48 V battery source and battery parameters such as voltage, current and temperature are sensed with the automotive-grade IC. Data communication executed by using Bluetooth technology.

K. Vishnu, Amit Ojha, R. K. Nema

### Chapter 48. A Novel Cascaded ‘H’ Bridge-Based Multilevel Inverter with Reduced Losses and Minimum THD

An industrial application requires a wide range of voltage and power levels. Inverters based on multilevel structure are most preferable in medium voltage and high power applications nowadays. Power quality defines the life of the equipment; hence, major attention is given for reducing harmonic component in an output. Also, constraints of space in industry demand compactness among the devices. This work mainly focused to generate output with minimal harmonic content and minimum power losses with reduced number of switches with level shifted (alternate opposition and disposition) control technique at lower switching frequency. Twelve switching devices are used to generate twenty-seven level output. These twelve switches are used in such a way that two opposite switches are complimentary in nature. This will reduce the requirement of driver circuits. Only six drivers are enough to drive twelve switches making proposed inverter compact. The simulation has been performed in MATLAB/Simulink software platform for testing performance of proposed inverter.

Madhusudhan Pamujula, Amit Ohja, Pankaj Swarnkar, R. D. Kulkarni, Arvind Mittal

### Chapter 49. Assessing Factors Influencing Supply Chain 4.0: A Case of Smart City Development

Smart cities are emerging as the future of urban development. By integrating technology and conventional city framework, smart cities intend to improve quality of life, ensure the security of citizens, and maintain the sustainability of the environment. The escalating growth in the present-day infrastructure of cities manifests that the day is not far when all the cities globally will transform into smart cities. The prominent driving factor of this development is Industry 4.0. The integrated framework of Industry 4.0 and smart city drives the digitalization of supply chains, and thus form the basis of Supply Chain 4.0. With the introduction of Supply Chain 4.0, the supply chains functioning worldwide are continuously incorporating significant technological advancements, which are assisting enterprises in gaining a remarkable competitive strength in the business market. This research work intends to develop a framework for understanding Supply Chain 4.0 with the perspective of smart city development.

Hritika Sharma, Saket Shanker, Akhilesh Barve

### Chapter 50. Electrical Equivalent Model for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Useful in On-Board Applications

Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is a complex device with the integration of multi-physics domains. Fuel cell performance is modeled by many researchers in the literature. Many models are constructed by integrating models of the multi-physics phenomenon in the fuel cell. Hence, the final fuel cell model becomes complex and computationally expensive. Whereas, this paper presents a simplified electrical equivalent model for PEM fuel cell. The proposed model has prediction and correction algorithms and it estimates fuel cell output and the potential error in the prediction algorithm. The estimated error is compensated in the estimated fuel cell output in the correction algorithm. The proposed model has fewer parameters to estimate and lesser fuel cell system-related inputs needed as compared to the models in the literature. Moreover, the proposed model is simple and computationally inexpensive. It is validated experimentally with three different fuel cells. Mean square error between the experimental observations and the model output is less than 0.00004. The model is suitable not only for off-board but on-board applications like fuel cell monitoring and diagnostics.

### Chapter 51. Predicting Waste to Energy Potential and Estimating Number of Transfer Station Based on Indore Waste Management Model: A Case of Indian Smart Cities

For Indian cities monitoring, planning, and designing strategies of waste from its production to disposal is a very essential agenda in Smart City Mission (SCM). Therefore, many measures are planned and executed by the Indian government both at the central and local level recently. One of important phase needed for successful planning is matching of prediction for generated waste inflows and treated waste outflow. This balance between inflow and outflow of waste should be sustainable in the long run to match the pace on the global scale of smart city development. The sustainable planning needs coupling of parameters forecasted with the policy perspectives which are to be addressed in smart city mission. Our analyzes through this paper try to highlight the projected values of biogas, bio-CNG, and waste to electricity potentials from municipal solid waste for the year 2031. These investigations and estimation will help cities to plan the number of transfer station, processing facilities with bio-CNG, waste to electricity and biogas plants, hence, preparing themselves for broader agenda of sustainable development goals (SDGs), 2030. The estimated number of transfer stations based on Indore waste management model, which will provide a more situated solution to decision making for waste infrastructural transformation for these cities eyeing became a smart city. The study also suggests some of funding option available for implementation of projects. For the study, 13 cities are taken from different states which are part of the Smart City Mission (SCM) of India.

Ankit Tiwari, Pritee Sharma

### Chapter 52. Analysis of Thermal Energy Storage Mediums for Solar Thermal Energy Applications

Energy storage mediums are highly popular in solar applications due to their ability to store heat and release it during any time period of the day. This study provides a classification of different thermal energy storage (TES) mediums in various solar energy systems with their feasibility and future applications. The concept of TES and the various studies on the application of TES in solar thermal applications have been presented. Recent advances and the performance of common solar thermal systems with and without TES have also been presented. Working conditions, economical aspects, suitability, and selection criteria of TES materials have also been discussed based on their application. This paper also uncovers the future aspects that possibly will improve the use of TES and lead to the performance optimization of solar thermal systems.

Shivansh Aggarwal, Rahul Khatri, Shlok Goswami

### Chapter 53. Application of Concrete Filled Steel Tubes in Solar Module Mounting Structure

Solar energy is a renewable form of energy. Sustainable development requires the promotion of renewable sources of energy as much as possible. Solar energy can be used to generate the electric energy by using a photovoltaic system, which could convert sunlight into electricity. Solar panels are arranged in a solar module mounting structure made of steel. The tracking of the solar panel is facilitated by the linear actuators. The solar module mounting structure is subjected to various different types of loading. Wind loading is a major concern for the structural integrity and stability of the module mounting structure. The solar module mounting structure is analyzed for various loads using the STAAD PRO structural analysis software, and then the results are used by ABAQUS finite element software to compare the behavior of hollow steel torque tube and concrete filled steel torque tubes under flexural and torsional stresses.

Jitendra Pratap Singh, Ajay Kumar

### Chapter 54. Reduction of Over Current and Over Voltage Under Fault Condition Using an Active SFCL with DG Units

Distributed generation resources are progressively found great advantages in distribution systems. In a distribution system where multiple distributed generation (DG) units are connected, over current and induced overvoltage that occur under fault conditions should be considered seriously to improve system reliability. Connecting active superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) in the distribution system is one of the best method among other conventional methods to reduce the over current and surge voltage that occur during fault condition. An active SFCL is made of PWM converter and an air-core transformer. This paper gives a detailed study of an active SFCL that suppress the fault current and surge voltage that may occur due to different types of fault at different location of DG units so connected into the network at different fault positions. The simulation results reveals that, by connecting an active SFCL in the power system can suppress effectively the over current and overvoltage that occurs during fault and hence the power system’s consistency and security be improved.

G. Sasi Kumar, G. Radhika, D. Ravi Kumar

### Chapter 55. Mathematical Modeling of Air Heating Solar Collectors with Fuzzy Parameters

Limited fuel and fossil energy have compelled the world to look forward for other renewable energy sources. Solar energy is one such vital energy resources that finds the application in various industrial as well as residential processes. Heat from this source is useful for increasing the temperature of air used for blow drying processes. The mathematical model for such phenomenon with imprecise parameter and/or initial condition leads to a fuzzy nonlinear dynamical model. In this paper, we propose Fuzzy Adomian Decomposition Method to obtain solution of this system. This solution obtained is compared at core.

Purnima Pandit, Prani R. Mistry, Payal P. Singh

### Chapter 56. Performance of Machine Learning Approaches for Malicious Traffic Intrusion Detection in Network

Intrusion detection has always been the major research area in the field of network security. From the past few years, intelligent mechanisms like artificial intelligence and machine learning have played a key role in developing some remarkable mechanisms for intrusion detection systems. The identity of the node is very important in the network and are categorised in terms of normal and malicious nodes. Identification of malicious node is equally essential as identification of attack in the network. Thus, intelligent machine learning algorithms are also used for identification of malicious nodes in the network. But still, the node behaviour is dynamic in nature and require detailed study. The aim of this paper is to apply various techniques of machine learning on the recent dataset and to observe the effectiveness of results in terms of detection of malicious attack traffic. The CIDDS-001 dataset has been used containing different category of attacks. The dataset is preprocessed and transformed using ensemble feature selection method. The reduced dataset containing the relevant and essential 12 features are trained and tested with the classification algorithms and outcome is achieved in terms of detecting the attacks with 99.6% accuracy.

### Chapter 57. Applications of Synchrophasors Technology in Smart Grid

Synchrophasor technology is now widely accepted throughout the world. The driving force is the increasing complexity of the modern power system, which has caused numerous power outages around the world. It enables efficient resolution to substantially improve transmission system planning maintenance, operation, and energy trading. Their efficiency is examined on diverse applications all around the globe in the area of transmission and distribution system. This paper explains various applications offered by synchrophasors technology in the modern power system.

Marwan Ahmed Abdullah Sufyan, Mohd Zuhaib, Mohd Rihan

### Chapter 58. Numerical Analysis of Performance Parameters and Exhaust Gas Emission of the Engine with Regular Air Intake System and with Insulated Air Intake System

In this study, an efficient method is proposed to enhance the performance of the spark-ignition engine at low speed by insulating the air intake assembly. The efficiency of the proposed insulated air intake congregation has been numerically analyzed. The variation in engine performance parameters has been recorded by the using engine scanner tool LAUNCH C Reader VI and Diesel—RK engine simulation software. The engine speed varies from 800 to 1500 revolution per minute at part open throttle and the intake air is allowed through the non-insulated and insulated air intake system, respectively. The Ansys version 14.5 has been used for the numerical analysis. The numerical simulation has been performed to evaluate the engine performance at part open throttle and variation in exhaust gas emission level due to variation in intake air temperature at the actual driving conditions.

Sanjay Chhalotre, Prem Kumar Chaurasiya, Upendra Rajak, Rashmi Dwivedi, R. V. Choudri, Prashant Baredar

### Chapter 59. Investigation of AI Based MC-UPFC for Real Power Flow Control

Unified power flow controller (UPFC) is one among the FACTS devices which is dealt in this work to improve the power transferring ability of the system. In this paper, we developed the matrix-converter-based UPFC (MC-UPFC), whereas classical UPFC is made up of two standard converters back to back connected through DC link, the converters are static synchronous shunt converter (STATCOM) and static synchronous series converter (SSSC). In our work, a MC-UPFC was implemented and tested in the IEEE-standard 14 bus system. The control of the MC-UPFC is done with the artificial intelligence system called fuzzy logic controller (FLC). UPFC can control both basic parameters of transmission system called real power [P] and reactive power [Q]. FLC gives the switching control states, and accordingly MC-UPFC will inject control voltage [Vc] at a control angle [α]. At a same time, MC-UPFC can control both real power flow and reactive power flow in the transmission system. With appropriate switching states in the MC-UPFC, the FLC gives the control signal to maintain both real and reactive power independently. The control signal was derived based on the proportional sliding surface switching states given as lookup tables in the FLC. The FLC will take decision, so that the magnitude and angle of the control voltage to be injected will fed to the power system by the MC-UPFC. FLC based MC-UPFC maintains the preset standards of required real and reactive power at a given condition. The result shows FLC give good performance. The work was designed in the MATLAB Simulink platform which gives very accurate results with user friendly. The tool gives access to store and study various performance analysis parameters like total harmonic distortion index.

C. Boopalan, V. Saravanan, T. A. Raghavendiran

### Chapter 60. Sizing and Performance Investigation of Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltaic System: A Case Study of MANIT Bhopal

In this paper, sizing and performance investigation of grid-connected solar photovoltaic system on the basis of load demand of MANIT, Bhopal (23.2599° N, 77.4126° E), Madhya Pradesh, India, is presented. All the aspects associated with grid-connected solar photovoltaic system are measured for fiscal viability of photovoltaic system for the proposed location. 750 kWP is proposed for satisfying the MANIT campus load. Proposed system can generate 1144 MWh annual average energy with 17.4% capacity factor. Per unit cost of the proposed system estimated as 3.129 INR per kWh and this proposed system has present value approximately 3.825 cr. INR. This study helps to appreciate design of grid-connected solar photovoltaic system in Bhopal and nearby region.

Arvind Mittal, Radhey Shyam, Kavali Janardhan

### Chapter 61. Comparative Study and Trend Analysis of Regional Climate Models and Reanalysis Wind Speeds at Rameshwaram

Climate change may affect wind patterns. It will impact wind energy generation. Climate models will help to assess how wind speed is affected by climate change. Climate models have different boundary conditions, and the forcing variables lead to the uncertainty of data. The present study provides a comparison of six regional climate models (RCMs) with reanalysis data (ERA-Interim) and validated with measured data at Rameshwaram. Further quantile mapping technique has been used for the removal of bias from RCM models. Results show that all six RCMs have lesser correlation (~0.50), high bias (~1.4 m/s) with measured data before quantile mapping. However, after the quantile mapping with reanalysis data, the RCMs achieved a higher correlation (~0.63) and less bias (~0.45). Further, the trends of wind speeds for all RCMs have been analysed and checked the significance of trends with the t-test. Results show that wind speed trends are increasing with 0.03 m/s/decade at Rameshwaram.

B. Abhinaya Srinivas, Garlapati Nagababu, Hardik Jani, Surendra Singh Kachhwaha

### Chapter 62. A Novel Islanding Detection Technique for Grid-Connected Distributed Generation Using KNN and SVM

This paper presents a novel technique for islanding detection using machine learning. Islanding occurs when a distribution generation (DG) along with local load become electrically isolated from the grid. Existing methodologies lack in accuracy and speed of islanding detection. The proposed methodology involves the simulation of distribution system with DG, creation of islanding, and non-islanding cases to capture voltages and current data which will be further processed using a four-level discrete wavelet transform for feature extraction. The machine learning classification model is created using a supervised learning classification algorithm based on the dataset generated. This classification model is used to detect the islanding condition. The proposed system is tested on different islanding and non-Islanding conditions. The experimental result shows that the proposed methodology is efficient than earlier islanding detection techniques.

Poonam P. Tikar, Ravishankar S. Kankale, Sudhir R. Paraskar

### Chapter 63. A 150 kW Grid-Connected Roof Top Solar Energy System—Case Study

With the growing requirement of energy and draining resources, the globe is approaching toward the renewable sources of supply. India is moving along with the world to extensively utilize the natural sources. One of the natural sources that is readily available in the country is the solar source. With the development in solar systems, rooftop solar photovoltaic system is an appealing alternate source of electricity for any industry or household. On contrast to the conventional source of generation, the sunrays are obtainable at zero cost and produce pollution-free electricity. The possibility of PV system at a certain site is evaluated through the availability of area, availability of sunrays, requirement of demand, etc. The technical specifications can be calculated using software simulation tools. This paper presents the performance analysis of a 150 kW grid-tied photovoltaic system mounted on the rooftop of an industry. Performance analysis of this grid-connected PV plants can assist in designing, functioning, and maintenance of a new grid-connected PV system.

Achala Khandelwal, Pragya Nema

### Chapter 64. Fuzzy SVM Classifier for Clothes Pattern Recognition

Cloth pattern recognition is a strenuous effort for partially or completely blind people. The large intra-pattern variations are posing limitations to the machine-based algorithms. With this mind, we are developing a MATLAB code for recognizing patterns of the clothes and enhancing the image parameters like contrast, brightness, etc. To determine the clothes pattern, till now, a simplified SVM classifier was used, but we tend to implement the same with use of the fuzzy support vector machine whose accuracy is considered to be better than the traditional SVM. In a simplified SVM, label is assigned on the basis of hyper plane and kernel function while in fuzzy SVM, membership in terms of probability is also determined for each sample to be fall in each class. The present project model consists of a MATLAB code and a datasets for training images. We create our own fuzzy rules for the image enhancement such as brightness and contrast. We then send the image through fuzzy rules, and the output is shown in the form of audio format. By the help of this, it is of huge help for the blind people who cannot differentiate them due to the loss of vision.

Abhishek Choubey, Shruti Bhargava Choubey, C. S. N. Koushik

### Chapter 65. A Detailed Analysis of Municipal Solid Waste Generation and Composition for Haridwar City, Uttrakhand, India

Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a heterogeneous unavoidable by-product generated by human activities in commercial and residential areas. With economic growth, population explosion, urbanization, industrialization, and better living standards in cities, India is facing the problem of MSW management and disposal. Municipal authorities are not able to manage increasing quantities of waste in an efficient way, due to which considerable MSW can be seen on the roads and other public places, which results in several environmental and health-related problems that are increasing. Therefore, ineffective MSW management is one of the major environmental issues in most Indian cities, which require serious attention. MSW generation rate and detailed composition analysis play a major role to develop an effective, economical, and environmentally friendly MSW management system. This paper aims to characterize the waste generated in Haridwar city and review of the existing situation of MSW management. A total of 10 samples (A to J, one sample per week) have been collected (5 in summer and 5 in winter) from MSW dumpsite of Haridwar city. All samples have been detailed physically characterized to find out the composition of each component of MSW. Also, the moisture content of each component of each sample has been determined. The main components of MSW were organics (49%), inert (17%), plastics (10%), paper and textile (9%), and metal (7%). The detailed composition analysis shows that organic (biodegradable 49%) and recyclable (35%) waste are two major components of MSW. Finally, based on field studies and available literature data, the waste generation rate of Haridwar city was estimated at 220 metric tons (0.94 kg /c /d).

Kapil Dev Sharma, Siddharth Jain

### Chapter 66. Techno-Economic Analysis of Piezoelectric-Based Smart Railway Tracks

This paper consists of an analysis of technical and economical aspects of the installation of piezoelectric pads on the railway tracks. The lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been used as piezoelectric material in this paper. For harvesting electrical energy, the two types of piezoelectric energy harvesting system, namely compression-type piezoelectric harvester and cantilever-type piezoelectric harvester are considered. The technical analysis included the sensitivity analysis of the energy produced by both types of piezoelectric system. The physical dimensions, frequency of vibrations, and amount of charge produced are the basic parameters of the piezoelectric energy harvesting system. Further, to get an idea about the economic aspect of the project, the cost analysis of single units of both the system has also been done. It has been observed that compression-type piezoelectric harvester is technically and economically superior to cantilever-type energy harvesting system in terms of electrical power generation for railway tracks.

Manvi Mishra, Priya Mahajan, Rachana Garg

### Chapter 67. JDMaN: Just Defeat Misery at Nagging—A Smart Application for Women Protection

Women are exploring themselves in various areas in this world and yet are facing many challenges and threats in their daily life; according to the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) 93.3% outrage, victims are solo women travelers. Due to these enormity situations, there is an urgent need to develop a women security device that can be easily carried. In this technological age, one gadget which has become like oxygen to everyone is a mobile phone. In such a scenario, by making use of mobile phone, we focus on developing a mobile app along with a wearable smart pendant developed by using IoT that assures women to travel confidently and safely. This IoT-based pendent can work automatically and manually. The pendant is an integration of multiple sensors that can work with or without contact with the human body. To the best of our knowledge, no mobile application or IoT device has proposed prior safety information about the route the user has to travel. Unlike the other mobile applications or IoT devices that will get activated at the time of the incident and then share the location details, our proposed method provides prior information of multiple routes from source to destination indicating safe and unsafe routes, and also a vibration is been given to the user so that she shall not become unconscious if at all she faces any unusual incident. The combination of mobile app and IoT-based pendant works very well in providing safety for women.

N. Jayanthi, N. M. Deepika, G. Nishwitha, K. Mayuri

### Chapter 68. Control of PM Synchronous Motor with Hybrid Speed Controller with Gain Scheduling for Electric Propulsion

Due to the increased operating efficiency and reduced carbon emissions, the number of battery driven electric vehicles (EVs) plying on the roads is gradually increasing. It is estimated that in the future, the electric vehicles will phase out the internal combustion engine-based vehicles, and the automobile sector will be dominated by EVs. In order to increase the distance travelled by EV per full charge of the battery, it is important to increase the efficiency of the propulsion system. Hence, permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs), which have higher operating efficiency, as compared to the induction motors, are largely preferred for electric propulsion. The PMSM drive generally employs field-oriented control (FOC). In FOC, the operation of speed controller is critical as it decides the reference torque for the inner control loop. As the proportional–integral (PI) speed controllers with constant gains suffer from performance degradation under disturbances, gain scheduling is employed. To further improve the dynamic performance of the speed controller, this paper reports electric propulsion with hybrid gain-scheduled PI speed controller for the FOC controlled PMSM. The weights for the gain-scheduled PI controller and the fuzzy equivalent proportional controller are determined by the hyperbolic tangent function. The output of the reported speed controller is the weighted average of the two controller outputs. This results in computational simplicity and improved dynamic performance. The EV performance with this hybrid speed controller is analysed for acceleration, deceleration and cruising conditions.

Amit V. Sant, V. S. K. V. Harish

### Chapter 69. Study on Effect of Draft Tube Diffuser Shape on Performance of Francis Turbine

Francis turbines are the most popular turbines among various kinds of hydraulic turbines. A thorough review of different kinds of literature has led to the conclusion that there is a desperate need to increase the performance of the Francis turbines. Many investigators have put their efforts to increase the turbine performance, and also the work is being projected on various aspects of turbine performance variables. To improve the performance of hydraulic Francis turbines by investigation, modification and analysis, many works of the literature are available. It is found that the performance of draft tube of any turbine plays a major role in overall performance of the turbine. In the present work, numerical simulation of complete Francis turbine is carried out at rated conditions by changing three different geometries of (circular, rectangular and rectangular with splitter) at the outlet section. Comparison of various performance parameters of Francis turbine at different rotational speeds for different types of draft tubes is done. It is found that the performance of draft tube with circular cross section at outlet is best.

Lakshman Suravarapu, Ruchi Khare

### Chapter 70. Dehydration of Vegetables Through Waste Heat of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System

Reduction in post-harvest losses of fresh vegetables is a major objective of most of the cold chain programs. Drying is also an effective tool for reducing post-harvest loss. However, the existing industrial drying techniques are energy intensive in operation results emission of high green-house gases. Low-grade waste heat recovered from condenser of refrigeration system could be utilized for drying applications. The process consists an effective utilization of heat, obtained by the condensing unit of a refrigeration system in an intermittent manner with no external energy requirement. An experimental approach of vapour-compression based-refrigeration system has been performed for drying of onion sample. The drying was performed at average temperature of 43 °C. Moisture content was reduced to 12% (wb) after 24 h of drying. Average values of drying rate and SMER were found as 0.013 kg/h and 0.196 kg/kWh, respectively, at the mass flow rate of 0.268 kg/s. The overall drying process is energy efficient. This could be a promising future replacement of current industrial drying systems which are relatively more energy intensive.

Ankur Nagori, Rubina Chaudhary, S. P. Singh

### Chapter 71. Peak Power Impact from Electric Vehicle Charging

India is aiming for 30% of all new vehicle sales to be electric by 2030, from a baseline of around 3.5% in FY 2018. In this paper, a methodology for peak power estimation is developed for electric vehicles used for passenger transport. Developed methodology considers the charging requirements which are different across various electric vehicle segments. Chargers available in the market have been classified into distinct power levels based on their nominal capacity. However, these power levels are applicable for electric car charging and are not appropriate for electric bus or electric rickshaw charging. Moreover, charging power needed for a battery is not the same as the nominal capacity of a charger. The nominal capacity of the charger acts as an upper limit to the power drawn, and the actual power drawn will be dependent on the battery capacity, the state of charge of the battery, and the time taken for charging. For each vehicle segment, the charging power is calculated for three different sets of battery capacity for distinct rates or possibilities of charging. Along with plug in charging possibility of battery swapping is factored in for relevant electric vehicle segment.

Chandana Sasidharan, V. S. K. V. Harish

### Chapter 72. Integration of Multiple Energy Sources for Hybrid Smart Street Light System

Consumption of electricity by street light is massive. This is due to the conventional control systems that are used which require high range of power. It is not good considering the importance of energy conservation nowadays. Smart and green lighting systems are essential for resolving these problems primarily due to the start of the concepts of smart cities. This paper therefore focuses on the project to design a smart and also green street lightening systems and utilization of renewable energy sources along with new concept of utilization of mobile radiation effectively. The system proposed, comprises of strong ideas and concepts that can control efficiently most of the operations of street lights derived from natural energy sources like the sunlight, wind energy and motion trace by micro controllers, with the support of RF wireless communication. Two conditions are needed to be completed to switch ON the lights. Low levels of intensity of light are detected by LDR sensor. PIR motion sensors are used to detect object present in the street. Without it, the street light will be in OFF condition. So by implementation of SSLS, the consumption of street light can be decreased. The level of carbon dioxide is also reduced due to the use of renewable energy sources. This causes the light to get ON before any vehicle or any pedestrian enters. Also, bright of street light is reduced whenever there is some movement.

Anurag Choubey, Hitesh Kumar

### Chapter 73. Improving Cold Flow Properties of Biodiesels Using Binary Biodiesel Blends

The environmental threats posed by rapidly deleting the fossil fuels are currently a major global concern and lead to the research of alternative energy resources. The biodiesel is considered as substitute of diesel but the biodiesel suffers with the disadvantage that the fuel quality is very much impacted by its cold flow properties. The present paper aims to improve the cold flow properties (CFP) of biodiesels by binary blending and blending with kerosene and ethanol as CFP improvers. Jatropha biodiesel (JB) and Pongamia biodiesel (PB) were blended with diesel, kerosene, ethanol and microalgal biodiesel (MB), and it is found that JB20 blend has 27% lower CP and PP compared to JB100. JBK40 blend lowers the CP and PP to 7 and 3 °C, respectively, while JBK20 blend maximally lowers the CP and PP up to −15 and −18.3 °C, respectively, but due to its non-renewable nature and emits lots of smoke due to kerosene it is not recommended for use in engine. JBE20 blend further reduces the CP and PP to 16 and 13 °C, which is higher than diesel. Therefore, ethanol is not recommended for blending purpose but may be used as CFP in lesser proportion. The results showed that JBM20 blend has significantly improved CP and PP (9.2 and 5.5 °C) and PBM20 blend also has lower CP and PP (12 and 7.5 °C) compared to JB100 and PB100. So, JB20, JBM20 and PBM20 blends can be recommended for use in engine under low-temperature conditions.

Krishna Kant Mishra, Mukesh Kumar, Ravikant Ravi, Amol Saini, Kunal Salwan, Mahendra Pal Sharma

### Chapter 74. Dual-Axis Solar Tracking System

For maximum power output through any PV panel module, it is necessary to adjust the PV panel in such a way that the solar radiation falls perpendicularly to the panel. Since the solar position varies with time and date throughout the year, for the optimum power output, the panel should not be set fixed. To perfectly track the solar position throughout the year, dual-axis controllable tracking system is needed to be design. This study focuses on the controlling of dual-axis solar tracking system. The main aim is to maximize the power efficiency of the photovoltaic module, by adjusting the angle in order to maintain the perpendicular angle between the sun and the PV module. This system introduces two motors with some electronic sensors connected at different positions for PV module adjustments. Further, this method is simulated and it is seen to be advantageous. This simulation gives reliable performance of the system.

Rahul Shaw, Swarup Kumar Das, Sajjan Kumar

### Chapter 75. CFD Analysis of Air Distribution for Suitable Position of Evaporator in Cold Chamber

In Indian cold storage industry, the two most important problems are higher energy consumption and storage losses beyond the permissible limit. In India, storage losses in potato cold store account for 3–10% of the stored product. Major losses are in the form of rotting, cold injury weight losses, and sprouting nutritive value degradation. In the present work, airflow velocity is measured in a modeled cold storage room with the help of ANSYS software. The data which is collected from ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 is the temperature records, and air velocity in monitor point and the distribution of temperature and air velocity in all nodes in model area. The velocity at top layer that is in front of evaporator is between 2.5 to 3 m/s and decreases drastically with distance from source. Airflow improves in the cold storages with the help of duct with slotted arrangement.

Sushil Kumar Maurya, Rahul kumar, Shri Krishna Mishra, Himanshu Vasnani, Hitesh Kumar

### Chapter 76. Role of Supercapacitor for Increasing Driving Range of Electric Vehicles Under Indian Climatic Conditions

In this paper, a hybrid combination of lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery and a supercapacitor (SC) has been studied for different realistic temperature conditions in India to estimate the driving range of lightweight electric vehicles (EVs) using standard worldwide harmonized light vehicles test cycle (WLTC) driving profile. The total power required at the wheels of the EV is estimated under ambient temperature conditions by a theoretical approach using the MATLAB/Simulink model. Addressing the demand peaks during the use of EV is an important problem towards thermal stability of electrical energy storage system (EESS). To address this problem, an additional electrical energy storage component along with Li-ion battery, namely SC has been explored. Simulation results indicate that there is no significant effect of temperature on the output of the SC as compared to Li-ion battery. A decrease of nearly 20% in the driving range has been registered due to the decrease in temperature from 45 to −15 °C within a driving time of 3600 s. The addition of an SC with Li-ion battery improves the driving range of EV significantly and helps in the additional storage of energy during regenerative braking.

Vima Mali, Brijesh Tripathi

### Chapter 77. Noise Vulnerability Assessment for Kota City

Noise pollution due to vehicular traffic is rapidly growing environmental concern of metropolitan cities all across the world. It became a primary source of noise emissions in urban cities because two-thirds of the total noise pollution in the big cities is associated with traffic noise. It is a derivative of industrialization and urbanization. As per WHO, noise is globally recognized as a major threat for human beings due to several physiological and psychological impacts on human health such as high blood pressure, stress-related disease, sleep disturbances, loss of hearing ability, and the harm of productivity. Severe impacts including loss of memory, frustration, and harmful attacks cannot be ignored. In this research work, the evolution of traffic noise in Kota city has been studied. Twenty-eight sampling locations are selected to cover the whole city for the estimation of traffic noise levels. Noise data is collected, analyzed, and further used for noise mapping. Noise maps have been generated with the help of geospatial information system (GIS) to complete the noise vulnerability assessment for Kota city. Affected areas can be identified through GIS where humans are highly susceptible to the adverse effect of traffic noise pollution. Cardiovascular impacts related to traffic noise levels are connected with noise exposer limit and time to explain the noise vulnerability for Kota city at 78 and 80 dB. This study reveals the importance of traffic noise reduction policies and strategies for public health.

Kuldeep, Sohil Sisodiya, Anil K. Mathur

### Chapter 78. Application of Global Sensitivity Analysis to Building Performance Simulations for Screening Influential Input Parameters in a Humid Coastal Climate

This paper explores the possibilities of informing decisions during the planning and design phases of a building. The study has been carried out for the weather pattern corresponding to the city of Kolkata, India. The results of the study can be appropriately generalized for similar coastal humid locations. Seven parameters have been taken as the dominant set of model inputs which are varied across several iterations of simulations. The study focusses on the energy consumption of the building as the sole dependent variable. The input parameters are varied by a Python script to generate several input data files for building performance simulation on EnergyPlus. The relative importance of each design parameter, as well as their combined effect in conjunction with other parameters, has been determined by performing sensitivity analysis on the building energy consumption and the corresponding input data samples. The Morris method of factor screening has been used to rank the design variables in order of their influence on the building energy consumption.

### Chapter 79. Two Decades of Urban Growth in Kota City: The Urban Heat Island Study

Rapid urbanization creates many issues that can have positive and negative impacts on the environment. The city of Kota, India is situated on the banks of the Chambal River; urbanization of Kota city has a significant impact on land surface temperature (LST) based on Landsat data of previous years. Kota city has increased land surface temperature (LST), build-up areas, and less vegetation. For studies, urban sprawl was analyzed using Landsat data from 2001, 2009, and 2020. The objective of this study is to compute spatial and temporal through change detection techniques and to explore the speed and direction of urban development using long-term satellite data. Determination of socio-economic changes in the study area analyzed the reasons for such rapid urban development in Kota city. The current report shows the correlation between the normalized difference of build-up index (NDBI) and land surface temperature (LST) for the city of Kota, Landsat 5, Landsat 7 ETM + for monitoring and analyzing high-resolution satellite images, Landscape 8 was used.

Payal Panwar, Sohil Sisodiya, Anil K. Mathur

### Chapter 80. Anomaly Detection Systems Using IP Flows: A Review

The dependency on computer networks is increasing in all the sectors of the society and so are the threats. An anomaly detection system detects new attacks, identifies the intruder, and blocks them from further attacks. The researchers are proposing various techniques to detect the anomalies. In this paper, various aspects of the anomaly detection systems are discussed. Flow collection process and the tools used for collection are discussed in detail. The various statistical, data mining, deep learning, outlier-based, ensemble-based, and other techniques used by researchers in developing anomaly detection systems have been reviewed in detail. The research gaps in the study of anomaly detection are also discussed to give future directions.

Rashmi Bhatia, Rohini Sharma, Ajay Guleria

### Chapter 81. Performance Analysis of 250 kWP Roof Top Grid-Connected Solar PV System Installed at MANIT Bhopal

The use of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (GCSPV) systems is increasing rapidly, so that appropriate performance analysis calculations play a key role in the emerging solar photovoltaic market. This paper presents the performance analysis of 250 kWp roof top grid-connected solar photovoltaic system installed at sports complex, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology (MANIT) Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh, India. The installed system consists of total 770 numbers of polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic modules of rating 325 Wp and five numbers of inverters in which three numbers are of 66 kVA and two numbers of 25 kVA power handling capacity. The parameters used in performance analysis are energy injected into grid or total yield, specific yield and performance ratio (PR). Recorded system monitoring data during December 2018 to May 2019 is used for performance analysis.

Arvind Mittal, Radhey Shyam, Kavali Janardhan

### Chapter 82. An Ensemble Model of Machine Learning for Primary Tumor Prognosis and Prediction

Machine learning is an artificial intelligence division that utilizes various computational, probabilistic, and optimization techniques that enable computers to “read” from previous examples and to identify trends that cannot be discerned from large, noisy, or complex datasets. This is particularly suitable for medical applications, particularly those dependent on complex proteomic and genomic measurements. The primary tumor is the deadliest disease, with a high mortality rate. Machine learning is therefore frequently used in the diagnosis and detection of primary tumors. Machine learning was more recently used to forecast and predict primary tumor diagnosis. The classification of the primary tumor may be defined with different machine learning algorithms, given the extreme impact of the disorder. Logistic regression, SVM, random forest, AdaBoost node, Naive Bayes, K-neighbor grouping, decision tree, and the Gaussian system classifiers are discussed. The dimensional reduction is implemented to simplify the dataset to reduce the measurement time. The objective of this paper is to propose an ensemble model for the prediction of the primary tumor.

Tejinderdeep Singh, Prabh deep Singh, Rajbir Kaur

### Chapter 83. Implementing Fog Computing for Detecting Primary Tumors Using Hybrid Approach of Data Mining

In these days, basic tumor ailment is a big health issue. A primary tumor is a cyst developing at the anatomy site where tumor growth starts and progresses to produce carcinogenic stuff. Internet of things (IoT) devices has the ability to sense and disseminate patient data. The huge amount of data created by intelligent IoT equipments is processed by fog devices. Fog computing in healthcare is becoming very popular as it brings processing capabilities to the edge of the network. In this paper, we have proposed three layered architecture based on fog computing to detect primary tumors which leads to reduction in propagation latency time, network use and energy consumption. As a result, real-time response to primary tumor problems is now possible. The data produced in IoT devices is preserved in cloud for long-term processing to produce statistical results. It helps in strong backups, recovery and high availability. For detecting primary tumors, hybrid approach of data mining is used to uncover hidden patterns, correlations and make decision related to person’s health. In hybrid approach of data mining, we combine three data mining techniques, namely simple logistics, J48 and random forest to obtain high-accuracy, kappa statistics result, TP rate, recall value, F-measure, area under ROC curve and low-root mean square error, root relative squared error. WEKA tool is used for the implementing hybrid approach of data mining.

Jasdeep Singh, Sandeep Kad, Prabh Deep Singh

### Chapter 84. Analysis on Filter Circuits for Enhanced Transient Response of Buck Converters

This paper discusses the importance of choosing a proper filter circuitry along with the power electronic converters. A case study of buck converter is considered and its response is studied with respect to various key filter circuits available in the literature. Although there are many varieties of filter designs available in the literature, the circuit configuration must be investigated to reduce the overall cost and associated losses. With respect to this, a detailed survey has been conducted to identify all such key circuits and used them to see their impact on the buck converter performance. The comparative analysis is carried out qualitatively and quantitatively to analyze the best features. In qualitative analysis, various factors such as number of filter components, their specifications, and sizes are considered and for quantitative analysis, ripple factor, transient response, and steady-state response are considered. The overall analysis and circuit designs are executed by MATLAB/Simulink software. From the analysis, a best-suited filter circuit for buck converter operation is concluded.

Karthik Ramireddy, J. V. A. R. Sumanth, T. R. S. Praneeth, Y. V. Pavan Kumar

### Chapter 85. The Cause and Control of Failure of Hydraulic Turbine Due to Cavitation: A Review

Cavitation is a cold boiling phenomenon which includes the growth of bubbles in pressure zone below the vapor pressure of water and subsequent collapse in higher-pressure zones. In hydraulic turbines, this phenomenon mainly occurs in reaction turbine, i.e., Francis Kaplan, propeller, bulb, etc. This may cause erosion, noise, instability in operation, vibration and lowers the performance and efficiency of hydroturbine. The installation, off-design operation and improper design of runner blade lead cavitation. In this paper, research carried out in the field of cavitation development, its variation with operating parameters along with material used are discussed. Further study of detection, cause and effect and method to minimize cavitation has been discussed. Effect of different design, i.e., tail water level and blade tip ration and operating characteristic, i.e., temperature, suction pressure and velocity on cavitation has been studied and presented.

Md. Mustafa Kamal, Ali Abbas, Ravi Kumar, Vishnu Prasad

### Chapter 86. Classification and Synthesis of Nanoparticles: A Review

The nanoparticle study is intense research with a huge application in optical, biomedical and in electronic fields. They have good scientific interest in the bulk, atomic and molecular structures. Changes in the size affect the chemical and physical properties of the nanoparticles. They have good properties with respect to the bulk material. The nanoparticles have a high surface area to the volume ratio. In the research work of nanotechnology with the study of physical and chemical properties, the application of nanoparticles in biofuel extraction has improved with improvement in the percentage of yield. The use of nanoparticles has improved the efficiency of the diesel engines. The review paper is about understanding the properties of nanoparticles and their applications. The present paper deals with the a review on classification and synthesis of nanoparticles.

Anna Raj Singh, M. Maniraj, Siddharth Jain

### Chapter 87. Marble and Granite Slurry Reuses in Industries

The solid waste generated from the production of marble and sandstone has been used to develop new products. It has been used as a mixture for the more efficient use of natural resources. Granite powder and industrial sand have been used in concrete as alternative materials suitable for concrete production. The primary role of this paper is to use marble dust, sandstone dust, fly debris. The best answer for the marble solution issue is to use it in clusters. The use of this waste will reduce the cost of concrete; Reduction in ecological contamination, use of common property, and vitality request. Marble powder has been used as a cheap filler instead of other commercial fillers such as bleaching and marble powder can be used for static applications as an incomplete replacement of carbon dark in various elastic objects that wear barrier and dynamic properties and do not require high forces. Marble powder is used in commodities, for example, gaskets, carpets, tubes, window pipes, etc.

S. S. Godara, Mohit Kudal, Tikendra Nath Verma, Gaurav Dwivedi, Shrey Verma

### Chapter 88. Experimental Investigation on Thermal Performance of Solar Air Collector Provided with Corrugated Absorber

The study is concern about the effects of solar air collector length. In this research, effects of collector length on the temperature as well as Nusselt number have been discussed for corrugated absorber plate. The mass flow rates are used in the range of 20–40 kg/h m2 through five steps having two different tilt angle and single as well as double glazing cover. Better heat transfer is occurred, collector with double glazing having 45° inclination. During heat transfer, enhancement heat is transferred from absorber to working fluid and Nusselt number (Nu) is found to be 325 which is higher as compared to others. In the entire cases, double glazing collector shows better enhancement from single glazing collector. In the consideration of two inclinations, 45° inclination displays improved outcomes as associated to 30° inclination. The highest absorber temperature is observed at double glazing with 45° inclination which is 99°.

Suman Debnath, Mukesh Kumar, Vikas Kumar, Amol Saini, Kunal Salwan, Ravikant Ravi

### Chapter 89. Noise Vulnerability Assessment at 78 dB (A) for Kota City

Noise pollution due to vehicular traffic is a rapidly growing environmental concern of metropolitan cities all across the world because the quality of life in urban cities and towns is greatly affected by the high noise level. It became a primary source of noise emissions in megacities because two-thirds of the total noise pollution in the urban cities are associated with traffic noise. It is a derivative of industrialization and urbanization. As per WHO, noise is globally recognized as a significant threat for human beings due to several physiological and psychological impacts on human health such as high blood pressure, stress-related disease, sleep disturbances, loss of hearing ability and the harm of productivity. Severe impacts, including loss of memory, frustration, and harmful attacks, cannot be ignored. In this research work, the evolution of traffic noise in Kota city has been studied. Twenty-eight sampling locations are selected to cover the whole city for the estimation of traffic noise levels. Noise data is collected, analysed and further used for noise mapping. Noise maps have been generated with the help of geospatial information system (GIS) to complete the noise vulnerability assessment for Kota city. Noise vulnerability assessment has been done at 78 dB (A). High noise level areas with an exposure time of associated population are identified. Humans living in high noise level areas with an exposure time of 75–100% of the total time are highly susceptible to the adverse effect of traffic noise pollution. Cardiovascular impacts related to traffic noise levels are connected with noise exposure limit and time to explain the noise vulnerability for Kota city. This study reveals the importance of traffic noise reduction policies and strategies for public health.

Kuldeep, Sohil Sisodiya, Anil K. Mathur

### Backmatter

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