In recent years, extensive research has been conducted by eminent mathematicians and engineers whose results and proposed problems are presented in this new volume. It is addressed to graduate students, research mathematicians, physicists, and engineers. Individual contributions are devoted to topics of approximation theory, functional equations and inequalities, fixed point theory, numerical analysis, theory of wavelets, convex analysis, topology, operator theory, differential operators, fractional integral operators, integro-differential equations, ternary algebras, super and hyper relators, variational analysis, discrete mathematics, cryptography, and a variety of applications in interdisciplinary topics. Several of these domains have a strong connection with both theories and problems of linear and nonlinear optimization. The combination of results from various domains provides the reader with a solid, state-of-the-art interdisciplinary reference to theory and problems. Some of the works provide guidelines for further research and proposals for new directions and open problems with relevant discussions.