Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Biological microstructures such as synapses, dendritic spines, subcellular domains, sensor cells, and many other structures are regulated by chemical reactions that involve only a small number of molecules, that is, between a few and up to thousands of molecules. Traditional chemical kinetics theory may provide an inadequate description of chemical reactions in such microdomains. Models with a small number of diffusers can be used to describe noise due to gating of ionic channels by random binding and unbinding of ligands in biological sensor cells, such as olfactory cilia, photoreceptors, and hair cells in the cochlea. A chemical reaction that involves only 10–100 proteins can cause a qualitative transition in the physiological behavior of a given part of a cell. Large fluctuations should be expected in a reaction if so few molecules are involved, both in transient and persistent binding and unbinding reactions. In the latter case, large fluctuations in the number of bound molecules can force the physiological state to change all the time, unless there is a specific mechanism that prevents the switch and stabilizes the physiological state. Therefore, a theory of chemical kinetics of such reactions is needed to predict the threshold at which switches occur and to explain how the physiological function is regulated in molecular terms at a subcellular level.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Berne, B.J. and R. Pecora (1976), Dynamic Light Scattering with Applications to Chemistry, Biology, and Physics. Wiley-Interscience NY.
Blomberg, F., R.S. Cohen, and P. Siekevitz (1977), “The structure of postsynaptic densities isolated from dog cerebral cortex, II. Characterization and arrangement of some of the major protein within the structure,” J. Cell Biol., 74 (1), 204–225.
Bonhoeffer, T. and R. Yuste (2002), “Spine motility: phenomenology, mechanisms, and function,” Neuron, 35 (6), 1019–1027. CrossRef
Chandrasekhar, S. (1943), “Stochastic Problems In Physics and Astronomy,” Rev. Mod. Phys., 15, 2–89. CrossRef
Crick, F. “Do dendritic spines twitch?” Trends Neurosci, 5, 44–46.
Dunaevsky, A., A. Tashiro, A. Majewska, C. Mason, R. Yuste (1999), “Developmental regulation of spine motility in the mammalian central nervous system,” PNAS, 96 (23), 13438–13443. CrossRef
Fischer, M., S. Kaech, D. Knutti, A. Matus (1998, “Rapid actin-based plasticity in dendritic spines,” Neuron, 20 (5), 847–854).
Fischer, M., S. Kaech, U. Wagner, H. Brinkhaus, A. Matus (2000), “Glutamate receptors regulate actin-based plasticity in dendritic spines,” Nat. Neurosci., 3 (9), 887–894. CrossRef
Hänggi, P., P. Talkner, and M. Borkovec (1990), “50 years after Kramers,” Rev. Mod. Phys., 62, 251–341. CrossRef
Haynes, L.W., A.R. Kay, K.W. Yau (1986), “Single cyclic GMP-activated channel activity in excised patches of rod outer segment membrane,” Nature, 321 (6065), 66–70. CrossRef
Holcman, D., Z. Schuss, and E. Korkotian (2004), “Calcium dynamics in dendritic spines and spine motility,” Biophys J., 87, 81–91. CrossRef
Kandel, E.R., J.H. Schwartz, T.M. Jessell (2000), Principles of Neural Science, McGraw-Hill, New York, 4th edition.
Koch, C. (1999), Biophysics of Computation, Oxford University Press, NY.
Koch, C. and A. Zador (1993), “The function of dendritic spines: Devices subserving biochemical rather than electrical compartmentalization,” J. Neurosci., 13, 413–422.
Koch, C. and I. Segev (editors) (2001), Methods in Neuronal Modeling (3rd printing), MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Korkotian, E. and M. Segal (2001), “Spike-associated fast contraction of dendritic spines in cultured hippocampal neurons,” Neuron, 30 (3), 751–758. CrossRef
Landau, L.D. and E.M. Lifshitz (1975), Fluid Mechanics, Pergamon Press, Elmsford, NY.
Lisman, J. (1994), “The CAM kinase II hypothesis for the storage of synaptic memory,” Trends Neurosci., 10, 406–412. CrossRef
Lisman, J. (2003), “Long-term potentiation: outstanding questions and attempted synthesis,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci., 29 (358(1432)), 829–842.
Majewska, A., A. Tashiro, and R. Yuste (2000a), “Regulation of spine calcium dynamics by rapid spine motility,” J. Neurosci., 20 (22), 8262–8268.
Majewska, A., E. Brown, J. Ross, R. Yuste (2000b), “Mechanisms of calcium decay kinetics in hippocampal spines: role of spine calcium pumps and calcium diffusion through the spine neck in biochemical compartmentalization,” J. Neurosci., 20 (5), 1722–1734.
Malenka, R.C., J.A. Kauer, D.J. Perkel, and R.A. Nicoll (1989), “The impact of postsynaptic calcium on synaptic transmission—its role in long-term potentiation,” Trends Neurosci., 12 (11), 444–450. CrossRef
Morales, M., E. Fifkova (1989), “Distribution of MAP2 in dendritic spines and its colocalization with actin. An immunogold electron-microscope study,” Cell Tissue Res., 256 (3), 447–456.
Nimchinsky, E.A., B.L. Sabatini, K. Svoboda (2002), “Structure and function of dendritic spines,” Annu. Rev. Physiol., 64, 313–335. CrossRef
Picones, A. and J.I. Korenbrot (1994), “Analysis of fluctuations in the CGMP-dependent currents of cone photoreceptor outer segments,” Biophys. J.66, (2, Part 1), 360–365.
Ramón y Cajal, S. (1909), “Les nouvelles idées sur la structure du système nerveux chez l’homme et chez les vertébrés,” Transl. L. Azouly, Malaine, Paris, France. “New ideas on the structure of the nervous system of man and vertebrates,” Transl. N. & N.L. Swanson, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA 1991.
Rieke, F. and D.A. Baylor (1996), “Molecular origin of continuous dark noise in rod photoreceptors,” Biophys J, 71, 2553–2572. CrossRef
Sabatini, B.L., M. Maravall, and K. Svoboda (2001), “Ca 2 + signalling in dendritic spines,” Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., 11 (3), 349–356. CrossRef
Schuss, Z. (2010b), Theory and Applications of Stochastic Processes, and Analytical Approach, Springer series on Applied Mathematical Sciences 170, NY.
Segev, I. and W. Rall (1988), “Computational study of an excitable dendritic spine,” J. Neurophysiology, 60 (6), 499–523.
Shepherd, G.M. (1996), “The dendritic spine: a multi-functional integrative unit,” J. Neurophysiology, 75 (6), 2197–2210.
Volfovsky, N., H. Parnas, M. Segal, and E. Korkotian (1999), “Geometry of dendritic spines affects calcium dynamics in hippocampal neurons: theory and experiments,” J. Neurophysiol., 82, 450–454.
Yuste, R. and W. Denk (1995), “Dendritic spines as basic functional units of neuronal integration,” Nature, 375 (6533), 682–684. CrossRef
Zador, A., C. Koch, and T.H. Brown (1990), “Biophysical model of a Hebbian synapse,” PNAS, 87, 6718–6722. CrossRef
Zucker, R.S. and W.G. Regehr (2002), “Short-term synaptic plasticity,” Ann. Rev. Physiol., 64, 355–405. CrossRef
- Brownian Models of Chemical Reactions in Microdomains
- Springer New York
- Chapter 5
microm, Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, Avaloq/© Avaloq Evolution AG, Avaloq/© Avaloq