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2023 | Buch

Energy and Environment in the Tropics

herausgegeben von: Shaharin Anwar Sulaiman

Verlag: Springer Nature Singapore

Buchreihe : Lecture Notes in Energy

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Über dieses Buch

The tropical zones are dominated by developing countries, which mainly face problematic environmental issues. Different than four-season countries, tropical countries have a continuous summer-like season and therefore they are rich in clean energy sources like solar and biomass. Hence, the mitigations of environment and energy issues in the tropics would require specific understanding and different approach to solutions. This book offers an assortment of studies on scenarios of environment as well as energy demand and power generation technologies in the tropics. Many of the countries within the tropics are highly populated, and this results in various problems related to the environment and energy. The demand for energy in these countries keeps increasing but concurrently there are also environmental issues that require serious attention. As the global concern on the environment is alarming today, the choice of power generation should be of the cleanest possible resource. This various reports on research activities carried out in the tropics on the aspect of environment and energy presented in this book are highly beneficial for those who like to see an improvement in the tropics with regard to environment and energy systems.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter
Facing Environmental Issues and Challenges in Archipelagic Countries
Abstract
Island ecosystem are continuously facing not just environmental but also socio-economic challenges. The threats of global warming, sustainable energy, environmental degradation, transportation, and exposure to the shift and fluctuations of the global economy are just some of the concerns of every archipelagic country and island community.
Jonathan Cabiguen Pacaldo
Energy Issues and Challenges on Archipelagic Countries
Abstract
Archipelagic countries had unique geographical scenario which makes its energy system challenges differ from continental ones [1], and the challenge of achieving 100% electrification for the entire country poses a great difficulty due to its islandic geographical nature [2].
Jonathan Cabiguen Pacaldo
Emissions and Nuisance by Idling Vehicles in Public Places
Shaharin Anwar Sulaiman, Mohamad Nazmi Z. Moni, Rohani Salleh, Haryanni Harun
Net-Zero Energy and Low Carbon Footprint in Residential Buildings in Tropical Regions
Abstract
Sustainability of the building sector necessitates application of energy efficiency measures and renewable energy technologies.
Zuhal Akyürek, Muhsin Gökhan Günay, Ali Özhan Akyüz, Afşin Güngör
Solar Energy Potential Assessments in Rain-Dominated Tropical Monsoon Climates
Abstract
This chapter is intended to give an overview of solar energy potential of regions under monsoon climate.
Muhsin Gökhan Günay, Zuhal Akyürek, Ali Özhan Akyüz, Afşin Güngör
Impact of Surface Temperature of a Photovoltaic Solar Panel on Voltage Production
Abstract
Surface temperature of the photovoltaic solar panel plays a significant role in electricity generation.
Ghassan Fadil Al-Doori, Raid Ahmed Mahmood, Abdullah Al-Janabi, Amer Mahmood Hassan, Girma T. Chala
Effect of Supplementary Cementitious Materials and Curing Conditions on Compressive Strength of Green Self-Consolidating Concrete
Abstract
The production of cement requires significant energy and is responsible for more than 5% of the global CO2 emission; therefore, it is imperative to reduce the production and use of ordinary Portland cement (OPC).
Osama Ahmed Mohamed
Plastic Waste Issue in Malaysia: Where Are We?
Abstract
One of Asia’s emerging environmental issues is the poorly organized disposal of plastic waste, the majority of which ends up downstream in the ocean. Malaysia’s increased production of single-use plastics, as well as the uncontrolled release of plastic debris into terrestrial and marine habitats, are contributing to widespread plastic pollution, posing significant environmental and health risks.
Shaharin Anwar Sulaiman, Rabi Kabir Ahmad
A Critical Review on Waste Plastic into Value-Added Hydrocarbons and Fuels
Abstract
Waste plastic is not a naturally degradable material, which is spreading diseases and adversely affecting our environment. Despite its nondegradability, this waste is an efficient source of hydrocarbons. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), and polypropylene (PP) contribute a major part to plastic-based wastes. Instead of burning and landfilling, waste plastic can be converted into value-added products. The efficacious disposal of this waste results in value-added products, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), combustible gases and liquid fuels. Waste management and recycling in this way are instrumental for the social, economic, and sustainable environment. CNTs and fuels from the plastic can be produced via arc discharge, chemical vapor deposition, catalytic pyrolysis and non-catalytic pyrolysis methods. Many researchers have reported the production of hydrogen fuel through pyrolysis of plastic waste, which is much more efficient and environmental friendly than traditional fossil fuels. Hydrogen is being taken as the fuel for the future. This chapter reviews the possible conversion of plastic waste into value-added hydrocarbons and fuels.
Rao Adeel Un Nabi, Muhammad Yasin Naz, Shazia Shukrullah, Abdul Ghaffar
Microwave Pyrolysis of Plastic Waste Materials into Hydrogen and Carbon
Abstract
Plastic manufacture and consumption on a massive scale are causing global environmental concerns. The pyrolysis of plastics is becoming a practical thermal recycling approach for producing energy and value-added materials from this waste. The microwave catalytic pyrolysis of plastic wastes is a unique and fast pyrolysis method. The plastic composition, catalyst type, plastic-type, and temperature all affect the quality and quantity of the final product. This study explores the potential of microwave technology for converting plastic waste into combustible oil, gases, and solid products. In microwave heating, materials can easily be heated volumetrically without surface heating like in conventional conduction. It is beneficial to use microwave radiations at a large scale due to less processing time, conversion of the product without overheating, and better product quality.
Rishmail Saleem, Muhammad Yasin Naz, Shazia Shukrullah, Bilal Shoukat
Use of Heterojunction Catalysts for Improved Catalytic Pyrolysis of Biomass and Synthetic Wastes
Abstract
Basic resources, foods, and agriculture are essential for human growth, but unethical disposal and burning of their waste have had a negative impact on society's socioeconomic survival as well as the spread of diseases. Although synthetic and biomass waste is a wonderful energy source and can be turned into value-added products such as biofuels, biochar, and syngas, they lack efficient disposal. The unsustainable production and environmental effluence of plastics have become a concerning issue nowadays due to their rapid use. Waste plastics pyrolysis has been rising as a useful chemical recycling approach for producing energy and materials from this waste. Catalytic pyrolysis is an acceptable method of converting synthetic and biomass waste into value-added products. Since heterojunction catalysts improve the catalytic activity of the pyrolysis process, extensive research has been done to analyze the catalytic activity and its effects on product yield and quality. This chapter highlights the role of heterojunction catalysts in improving the pyrolysis of natural and synthetic wastes. The potential use of heterojunction catalysts for improved catalytic pyrolysis of biomass and synthetic wastes is reviewed in detail in this chapter.
Rishmail Saleem, Shazia Shukrullah, Muhammad Yasin Naz
Biomass Gasification for Sustainable Power Production in Tropical Countries
Abstract
According to the Paris climate agreement, signed in 2015 and with 191 members joining the agreement as of March 2021, countries aim to limit the average temperature increase to 2 °C (even 1.5 °C) from the pre-industrial period.
Ali Akyüz, Kazım Kumaş, Ragıp Yıldırım, Afşin Güngör
The Effect of Alcohol Additives on Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics for Biodiesel–Diesel Blend Fuel in Compression Ignition Engine
Abstract
The energy security issues due to the depletion of crude-based fuel (diesel) forced the energy and transport sectors to looking for the alternative fuels. Biodiesel is an alternative fuel mainly obtained from non-edible sources to substitute the diesel fuel.
Adem Siraj Mohammed, Samson Mekbib Atnaw, Ancha Venkata Ramaya
The Biogas Technology Development in Ethiopia: The Status, and the Role of Private Sectors, Academic Institutions, and Research Centers
Abstract
Ethiopia is a country with less access to electricity, for which biomass is commonly used as a major source of energy for cooking, heating, and kerosene for lighting in rural areas.
Adem Siraj Mohammed, Samson Mekbib Atnaw, Melaku Desta
Environment Friendly Production of Coconut Shell Charcoal Through Pyrolysis
Abstract
Due to global energy concerns and sustainability issues, the use of coconut shell biomass for charcoal production has drawn interest in the society. However, assessing how to produce charcoal, as well as increasing yield and quality, remains a significant problem.
Muhammad Najwan Azit, Rabi Kabir Ahmad, Shaharin Anwar Sulaiman
Thermal Comfort Attainment by Personal Vortex Tube Cooling Device
Abstract
A vortex tube is a small cooling device that uses compressed gas to produce cold flow with a temperature as low as −30 °C. In industries, this cold flow is used to reduce the temperature of mechanical parts of machines, environmental chambers, and electrical components.
Mohd Hazwan Yusof, Amirul Nawaf Esa, Muhammad Fadhli Suhaimi
Urban Heat Island Phenomenon in Tropical Countries: Analysis of the Wake Flow Behind Slender High-Rise Building
Abstract
Urban Heat Island (hereafter, UHI) is a phenomenon described by an increased temperature in an urban area compared to the temperature of its surrounding (Mohajerani et al. in J Environ Manag 197:522–538, 2017).
Muhammad Arifuddin Fitriady, Nurizzatul Atikha Rahmat, Ahmad Faiz Mohammad
Natural Ventilation in Traditional Malay House: A Study of Flow Pattern by an Enhanced Smoke Wire Technique
Abstract
The present work focuses on the qualitative study of flow patterns behind a traditional Malay house utilizing the smoke wire technique with enhanced control dripping and tensioner systems in a small-scaled quasi-atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel. The controlled drip valve system is utilized to deliver a continuous smoke flow by dripping down water-based solution onto 10 nichrome wires in series. The wires are held down by the spring tensioner system to compensate for the wires’ expansion when heated to produce continuous and dense smoke lines.
Nurizzatul Atikha Rahmat, Kamil Khalili Haji Abdullah, Khairun Adhani Khairunizam
The Importance of Ventilation in Vehicle Cabin on Air Quality
Abstract
Recirculation of air within a vehicle is an excellent approach to limit particle pollution and enhance air conditioner cooling efficiency. Nevertheless, prolonged use of recirculation air within a vehicle may result in high accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the vehicle’s cabin due to human exhalation and the lack of fresh air. On the other hand, allowing outside air to enter into the cabin would expose the passengers to roadway contaminants. Since the contaminants in outdoor air may not be noticeable by humans, the vehicle drivers would not be able to know if the air quality in the car cabin is a healthy one.
Shaharin Anwar Sulaiman, Khairul Adha M. Zali
Indoor Carbon Dioxide Levels in a Typical Wooden House in Northern Borneo
Abstract
High indoor carbon dioxide (CO2) is a result of poor ventilation. The CO2 concentration is mainly contributed by human respiration especially when a confined space is occupied for a long period of time such as due to sleeping or due to lockdown during the pandemic.
Shaharin Anwar Sulaiman, Ealdvieriena Jainin
A Review for Sustainable Electrification of Ethiopia with Hydropower Energy
Abstract
Because several rivers flow into neighboring countries, Ethiopia is known as Africa's water tower. Aside from the abundance of rivers, the country's terrain, which ranges from 120 m below sea level at Kobar Sink to 4620 m above sea level at Ras Dashen, makes it more appropriate for hydropower generation. Because several rivers flow into neighboring countries, Ethiopia is known as Africa's water tower.
Fiseha Mekonnen Guangul, Girma Tadesse Chala
Numerical Modelling and Performance Optimization of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
Abstract
As the world consumes non-renewable energy sources, the impetus to switch to renewable energy sources such as wind energy is rapidly increasing as they deliver clean, reliable energy that is available for longer periods of time compared to conventional energy sources.
Salman Shahid Pervaiz, Sharul Sham Dol, Abdulla Khamis Alhassani, Mohanad Tarek Abdallftah, Mohammed Fares
Heat Transfer Enhancement in Stirling Engines Using Fins with Different Configurations
Abstract
Stirling engines origins are traced back to the nineteenth century; Stirling engines as technology was becoming less popular due the industrial revolutions change within those periods and recently gained back its attention.
Alya Ali Alblooshi, Mehwish Khan Mahek, Khaled M. Al-Aribe, Sharul Sham Dol
The Feasibility of Tidal Energy in the United Arab Emirates
Abstract
Renewable energy and sustainability are vital in meeting the exponential growth of energy demand due to increasing population and industrial needs.
Odai Mowafaq Fandi, Sharul Sham Dol, Mohammed Alavi
Metadaten
Titel
Energy and Environment in the Tropics
herausgegeben von
Shaharin Anwar Sulaiman
Copyright-Jahr
2023
Verlag
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
978-981-19-6688-0
Print ISBN
978-981-19-6687-3
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-6688-0