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This book provides some regional aspects considered by manufacturing firms in their decisions to gain competitiveness and have effects on the performance of their supply chains (SC). Some of the main aspects considered are: government's policies, fixed costs, the availability and quality of infrastructure services. This book also discusses the risks for the SC; based on a perception approach, some aspects studied are: demand, suppliers and production processes and how these are related to other elements of the SC. The authors use structural modeling to analyze the evaluation of some manufacturing practices and their impact on customer service satisfaction, agility and flexibility of the SC. The context of this study is immersed in the Mexican manufacturing industry of exportation, also known as maquiladora industry of Ciudad Juarez, México. This borderland is among the top 10 manufacturing Mexican cities. World class industries are located in this region and have been recognized around the world for their competitiveness and high performance. Therefore, the methods and results exposed in this book may be valuable and useful for readers and researchers of the SC worldwide.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Competitiveness Aspects of Supply Chain

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Conceptualization of Supply Chain Competitiveness

Competitiveness is a well-known aspect that refers to the ability of companies and countries to maintain certain productivity and efficiency advantages in order to reach economic goals and maintain a given market position. The goal of this chapter is to present the concept of competitiveness by briefly explaining its historical evolution and establishing its relationship with the supply chain (SC). Additionally, this chapter will anticipate the difference between competitive advantage and comparative advantage.

Liliana Avelar-Sosa, Jorge Luis García-Alcaraz, Aide Aracely Maldonado-Macías

Chapter 2. The Importance of Supply Chains in Global Competitiveness

This chapter reviews the topic of global production, with a brief discussion of its historical evolution. We explain the concepts and aspects that have influenced the current production regime and discuss the relationship between the supply chain and the current environment of global competitiveness. Then, we address current supply chain trends that operate in today’s dynamic world economy through global production. Finally, we present examples of some companies that have reached success and have gained a great competitive advantage through an appropriate supply chain management.

Liliana Avelar-Sosa, Jorge Luis García-Alcaraz, Aidé Aracely Maldonado-Macías

Chapter 3. Conceptualization and Environment of Competitiveness in the Manufacturing Industry

This chapter discusses the role of competitiveness in the manufacturing industry considering particular aspects of this industrial sector throughout the history of Mexico. This conceptualization of competitiveness forces us to discuss the main industrial sectors of the country and their importance to the national economy.

Liliana Avelar-Sosa, Jorge Luis García-Alcaraz, Aidé Aracely Maldonado-Macías

Chapter 4. Supply Chain Evaluation in the Manufacturing Industry

This chapter explains the relationship between the supply chain and the export-oriented manufacturing industry. Similarly, we discuss how this relationship has an effect on the ability of companies to remain competitive domestically and internationally. The chapter closes with an overview of the most common supply chain evaluation approaches in the export-oriented manufacturing industry.

Liliana Avelar-Sosa, Jorge Luis García-Alcaraz, Aidé Aracely Maldonado-Macías

Supply Chain Performance Factors

Frontmatter

Chapter 5. Conceptualization of Supply Chain Performance

This chapter discusses concepts related to supply chain performance and supply chain performance evaluation. The purpose of this chapter is to explain how current companies seek benefits and competitiveness through supply chain attributes and supply chain performance metrics. Some of these attributes and metrics are classified from an economic perspective, whereas others are addressed from an operational, tactical, or strategic approach to explain qualitative and quantitative aspects of the supply chain. Understanding the notions and implications of supply chain performance and supply chain evaluation is very important when companies aim at improving their competitive levels, especially because performance metric systems provide real-time information on how the supply chain is managed. Similarly, classifying performance into its different categories will allow this chapter to clearly address evaluation methods in the manufacturing industry.

Liliana Avelar-Sosa, Jorge Luis García-Alcaraz, Aidé Aracely Maldonado-Macías

Chapter 6. Supply Chain Performance Factors in the Manufacturing Industry

This chapter discusses the external factors considered in supply chain performance evaluation in the manufacturing industry. We first provide a conceptualization of these factors and then discuss their background. The fundamental goal of this chapter is to provide an overview of those external elements that impact on supply chain performance and to explain how they are traditionally evaluated. Through its content, this chapter makes reference to the following topics:Supply chain risk, including demand risks, supply risks, and process production risk.Manufacturing practices in the supply chain, especially lean manufacturing practices.Regional factors affecting the supply chain, including the government, services, regional costs, regional infrastructure, quality of life, proximity, and human resources characteristics.

Liliana Avelar-Sosa, Jorge Luis García-Alcaraz, Aidé Aracely Maldonado-Macías

Chapter 7. Supply Chain Performance Attributes and Benefits in the Manufacturing Industry

This chapter explores how performance factors and supply chain benefits are interrelated. We particularly emphasize on the attributes used to evaluated performance in a clearly industrial context. First, the chapter discusses some definitions of supply chain performance. Then, performance benefits are explored along with their measurements and role within the industry. It is important to mention that the attributes used in this book to measure performance were adapted from the works of several authors. Moreover, they will be used in subsequent chapters to assess supply chain performance in the manufacturing industry.

Liliana Avelar-Sosa, Jorge Luis García-Alcaraz, Aidé Aracely Maldonado-Macías

Chapter 8. Supply Chain Evaluation and Methodologies

This chapter discusses some of the most common supply chain evaluation methodologies in the industrial context. The chapter first addresses the use of multivariate techniques; then, we discuss the goal and the characteristics of the methods employed in this research, which include linear regression and factor analysis. The goal of this chapter is to better understand Chap. 9, which provides a comprehensive description of the methodology followed in this book to explore the impact of a series of critical success factors on supply chain performance, namely supply chain competitiveness.

Liliana Avelar-Sosa, Jorge Luis García-Alcaraz, Aidé Aracely Maldonado-Macías

Impact of Competitiveness on the Supply Chain Performance

Frontmatter

Chapter 9. Methodology

The goal of this book is to identify risk perception levels, regional impact factors, and manufacturing practices in the manufacturing industry and then to assess the impact of these variables on supply chain performance. The information will be used to construct a series of latent variables via statistical analyses. Then, these variables will be tested and validated according to some criteria. Once validated, the variables will be integrated into different structural equation models to find the relationships among them. Later on, these models will be interpreted with respect to their research hypotheses. Then, industrial implications and conclusions will be provided with regards the impact of the latent variables on supply chain performance (SCP). The following sections describe the process followed to reach our goal.

Liliana Avelar-Sosa, Jorge Luis García-Alcaraz, Aidé Aracely Maldonado-Macías

Chapter 10. Exploratory Analysis of the Data

This chapter discusses the exploratory analysis performed on the data collected in this research and used to develop the models that assess supply chain performance. Similarly, we discuss the aspects used to measure supply chain risks, manufacturing practices, and regional impact factors. The survey validation procedure is then discussed as well as the characteristics of the sample. Finally, we address each questionnaire construct to contribute to the understanding of the survey and its results.

Liliana Avelar-Sosa, Jorge Luis García-Alcaraz, Aidé Aracely Maldonado-Macías

Chapter 11. Supply Chain Risks in Supply Chain Performance

As previously mentioned, the goal of this book is to assess the effects of manufacturing practices and risk factors on supply chain performance. This chapter introduces a series of structural equation models to assess the relationships between three types of supply chain risk factors—supply risks, demand risks, production process risks—and supply chain performance indices. The models are measured and tested as described in the methodology chapter.

Liliana Avelar-Sosa, Jorge Luis García-Alcaraz, Aide Aracely Maldonado-Macías

Chapter 12. The Role of Regional Factors on Supply Chain Performance

This chapter explores the impact of regional aspects on supply chain performance. Some of the aspects to be studied include regional infrastructure, infrastructure and services costs, services, service quality, and the role of the government as regulator. First, we develop simple models associating two latent variables each: one regional aspect and one supply chain performance benefit. Then, we propose more complex models to depict the interactions and effects among regional aspects. Finally, an integrative model is introduced to associate all the regional aspect variables with all the supply chain performance benefit variables.

Liliana Avelar-Sosa, Jorge Luis García-Alcaraz, Aide Aracely Maldonado-Macías

Chapter 13. Models of Regional Factors—Supply Chain Performance (Benefits)

This chapter proposes a series of models to associate Regional Factors with supply chain performance benefits. The relationships between the latent variables are considered as research hypothesis and are validated using data collected from the Mexican export-oriented manufacturing industry. The evaluation results indicate that Regional Factors are essential in supply chain Performance but are also a source of uncertainty for manufacturing industries. In other words, aspects such as infrastructure and government support are important for companies to operate, yet they cannot be controlled inside of the facilities and depend on external forces.

Liliana Avelar-Sosa, Jorge Luis García-Alcaraz, Aide Aracely Maldonado-Macías

Chapter 14. The Role of Manufacturing Practices in Supply Chain Performance

This chapter explores the impact of manufacturing practices on supply chain performance. Four major manufacturing practices are studied: total quality management (TQM), just in time (JIT), machinery and equipment maintenance, and advanced manufacturing technology (AMT). The relationships between these manufacturing practices and supply chain performance benefits are proposed in a series of models. They are later tested and evaluated to determine their validity and statistical significance. Finally, the chapter proposes an integrative model to explore how manufacturing practices are interrelated.

Liliana Avelar-Sosa, Jorge Luis García-Alcaraz, Aidé Aracely Maldonado-Macías

Chapter 15. Models of Manufacturing Practices and Integrative Model

This chapter develops three structural equation models. The first two relate the best manufacturing practices with eight supply chain performance benefits. The third one is a second-order model that associates all the regional impact factors, manufacturing practices, and supply chain benefits studied in previous chapters. Each model proposes its own hypotheses to relate the latent variables. Such hypotheses are statistically tested and validated to confirm their feasibility. Then, the direct, indirect, and total effects are interpreted for each relationship between latent variables. Finally, we propose final conclusions and industrial implications for each model.

Liliana Avelar-Sosa, Jorge Luis García-Alcaraz, Aidé Aracely Maldonado-Macías
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