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Über dieses Buch

This book explores how novel digital services, including e-services, digital platforms and mobile apps, are increasingly being innovated through open processes. It investigates how and why organizations invite external developers to participate in their innovation, often catalyzed by contests and the provision of open data, with the aim of designing digital services that go beyond the capability of the organizations themselves.
Taking a contest driven approach to innovation, the book provides an accessible yet comprehensive introduction to the area of open digital innovation. It offers an analysis of key scientific principles underlying open innovation and based on these provides practical tools for improving the digital innovation process. Furthermore, the book introduces instruments for managing innovation contests, in particular for overcoming innovation barriers and for harnessing the power of motivating factors. It serves as a text for graduate and undergraduate courses in digital innovation and entrepreneurship, but is also a valuable resource for managers as well as policy makers in the field of open digital innovation.



Chapter 1. Introduction

This chapter provides a background to the book. It introduces the notion of innovation and discusses how it can be managed, in particular through innovation contests. A life-cycle perspective on innovation contests is introduced, which shows how a contest moves through the phases of pre-contest, contest, and post-contest. This perspective is used throughout the book and the activities of the life-cycle are described and analysed in separate chapters, moving from goal setting and stakeholder engagement over operations management to business model design and barrier management.
Anders Hjalmarsson, Gustaf Juell-Skielse, Paul Johannesson

Chapter 2. Open Innovation

This chapter introduces the notion of open innovation, which is about organizations making use of external ideas, solutions and technologies instead of only relying on its internal innovation. Three different forms of open innovation are discussed: inside-out, outside-in and coupled innovation , which differ with regard to the direction of the idea flows. The chapter also introduces a number of models for open innovation, including crowdsourcing, product platforming, collaborative innovation networks, and innovation contests. Digital innovation has transformed many businesses, enabling new kinds of smart, connected products as well as novel business models based on platforms.
Anders Hjalmarsson, Gustaf Juell-Skielse, Paul Johannesson

Chapter 3. Open Digital Innovation Contest

This chapter introduces open digital innovation contests that aim to develop digital services. Key stakeholders in such contests are identified: organisers, participants, resource providers, and beneficiaries. A classification of digital innovation contests is proposed based on the length of a contest and its inclusiveness. Other design elements of contests are also discussed, including media, target group and evaluation. It is argued that innovation contests can be viewed as innovation intermediaries that help to connect actors in an innovation system. Advantages and disadvantages of innovation contests are discussed. Finally, six contests are introduced, which serve as running examples throughout the book.
Anders Hjalmarsson, Gustaf Juell-Skielse, Paul Johannesson

Chapter 4. Organising Open Digital Innovation Contests

This chapter introduces a structured approach to support organisers of open digital innovation contests. It supports organisers to design and operate contests to achieve intended outcomes and effects. First, the logic of the model is presented. Then each phase in the model is described and key activities are highlighted. The following chapters describe each activity in detail.
Anders Hjalmarsson, Gustaf Juell-Skielse, Paul Johannesson

Chapter 5. Set Contest Goals

This chapter deals with contest goals. First, different types of goals are presented together with examples from different contests. Then the activity Set goals is described with guidelines and a running example. This important activity in the pre-contest phase affects and is itself affected by several of the other activities in the approach, such as Engage stakeholders and Design contest. Finally, we suggest further reading on the use of goals to support management.
Anders Hjalmarsson, Gustaf Juell-Skielse, Paul Johannesson

Chapter 6. Engage Contest Stakeholders

This chapter address the stakeholders that should be identified and engaged in the contest process. First, different types of stakeholders are presented along with their characteristics and support to the contest organizers. This is followed by a description of the activity Engage contest stakeholders and a running example. Engaging contest stakeholders is affected by the activity Set goals and itself affects activities such as Motivate developers and Design contest. Often, iterations are made between engaging stakeholders and the process to design the contest, as the structure of the competition is evolving during the pre-contest phase. Finally, we suggest further reading on engaging stakeholders in open digital innovation.
Anders Hjalmarsson, Gustaf Juell-Skielse, Paul Johannesson

Chapter 7. Design Contest

In this chapter, we discuss how to design an open digital innovation contest. First, contest formats are matched to contest goals. Then, different elements of contest design are presented, followed by a description of the activity Design contest with guidelines and a running example. Design contest sets the scene for the remainder of the contest process and is heavily affected by the activity Set goals. Finally, contest rules and how to budget a contest are discussed together with some suggestions for further reading.
Anders Hjalmarsson, Gustaf Juell-Skielse, Paul Johannesson

Chapter 8. Develop Contest Platform

This chapter explains how a contest platform can support different stakeholders, prior, during and after the contest. First, the notion of a contest platform is described. This is followed by a description of the activity, followed by running examples that guide the organizer to select and develop a suitable contest platform. Develop contest platform is affected by the contest design, but also affect which stakeholders to engage in the pre-contest phase. The notion of a platform has several meanings as we explore in the Read More section concluding this chapter.
Anders Hjalmarsson, Gustaf Juell-Skielse, Paul Johannesson

Chapter 9. Motivate Developers

In this chapter, we present motivational factors for external developers and discuss how to motivate different types of contest participants. The activity Motivate developers is presented in conjunction with a running example. The chapter ends with a suggestion for further reading.
Anders Hjalmarsson, Gustaf Juell-Skielse, Paul Johannesson

Chapter 10. Manage Contest Operations

This chapter provides a description of how to manage contest operations. It starts by presenting common problems encountered during contest operations. Then proactive and reactive measures to deal with these problems are suggested. The activity Manage operations is described in sub-activities and followed by guidelines. The chapter concludes with several examples.
Anders Hjalmarsson, Gustaf Juell-Skielse, Paul Johannesson

Chapter 11. Evaluate Contest Contributions

In this chapter, six methods for evaluating contest contributions are presented. The methods are described in terms of meaning and their implications on the presentation and submission of contributions. The methods are also mapped to the types of contest goals introduced in the activity Set goals, thereby providing guidance for choosing an evaluation method based on the contest goals. The chapter also contains a roadmap for choosing and preparing an evaluation method, as well as guidance as to how organisers should communicate evaluation results to the participants. The chapter is concluded with a running example section that describes experiences and lessons learned from several of the contests referred to in this book.
Anders Hjalmarsson, Gustaf Juell-Skielse, Paul Johannesson

Chapter 12. Develop Strategy

In this chapter, we present the activity Develop strategy. The goal of the activity is to develop a strategy that guides the organisers in managing participant relationships after the end of a contest. First, we discuss strategic options for the post contest phase. The strategic options range from not establishing relationships at all to providing substantial support for selected participants enabling close and long-term relationships. Then we present the activity with running examples for different strategic options. Finally, we give some suggestions for further reading.
Anders Hjalmarsson, Gustaf Juell-Skielse, Paul Johannesson

Chapter 13. Manage Innovation Barriers

This chapter deals with how innovation barriers after a contest can be managed if the organizer of the contest has decided to provide support also after the contest itself has ended. As starting point, a survey of such barriers to innovation is presented together with approaches for managing such barriers. The management approach is described from a contest organizers perspective, and includes an activity description followed by a running example. Finally, a read more section presents the theoretical base for the innovation barrier approach. Manage Innovation Barriers is the second activity in the post contest phase. After the contest, the deployment of a digital service will be structured according to a decided post contest strategy. See Chap. 12, Develop strategy, for managing the relationship between the organisers and the former participants. Different barriers can hinder a post contest deployment project to transform a prototype to an operational digital service ready for market entry.
Anders Hjalmarsson, Gustaf Juell-Skielse, Paul Johannesson

Chapter 14. Design Business Model

In this chapter, we discuss how organisers design or adapt business models to clarify how contest goals and service deployment contribute to their business. First, we present how the formulated strategy, see Chap. 12, affects the business model. Then we describe and give some guidelines for the activity Design business model. Finally, we present examples of each of the proposed business model types.
Anders Hjalmarsson, Gustaf Juell-Skielse, Paul Johannesson

Chapter 15. Monitor Contest

In this chapter, we present a method for evaluating open digital innovation contests. The method serves several purposes: it helps to evaluate whether the organisers have achieved their goals of organising the contest or not, it supports managers in managing the contest operations and it supports learning within the organisations. The activity also supports knowledge transfer to other organisations and supports making contributions to the scientific knowledge base. The method description is followed by an example and a few guidelines.
Anders Hjalmarsson, Gustaf Juell-Skielse, Paul Johannesson


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