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Über dieses Buch

This book introduces readers to robotics, industrial robot mechanisms, and types of robots, e.g. parallel robots, mobile robots and humanoid robots. The book is based on over 20 years of teaching robotics and has been extensively class tested and praised for its simplicity.

It addresses the following subjects: a general introduction to robotics; basic characteristics of industrial robot mechanisms; position and movement of an object, which are described by homogenous transformation matrices; a geometric model of robot mechanisms expanded with robot wrist orientation description in this new edition; a brief introduction to the kinematics and dynamics of robots; robot sensors and planning of robot trajectories; fundamentals of robot vision; basic control schemes resulting in either desired end-effector trajectory or force; robot workcells with feeding devices and robot grippers.

This second edition has been expanded to include the following new topics: parallel robots; collaborative robots; teaching of robots; mobile robots; and humanoid robots. The book is optimally suited for courses in robotics or industrial robotics and requires a minimal grasp of physics and mathematics.

The 1st edition of this book won the Outstanding Academic Title distinction from the library magazine CHOICE in 2011.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Today’s robotics can be described as a science dealing with intelligent movement of various robot mechanisms which can be classified in the following four groups: robot manipulators, robot vehicles, man-robot systems and biologically inspired robots.
Matjaž Mihelj, Tadej Bajd, Aleš Ude, Jadran Lenarčič, Aleš Stanovnik, Marko Munih, Jure Rejc, Sebastjan Šlajpah

Chapter 2. Homogenous Transformation Matrices

As stated previously robots have either translational or rotational joints. To describe the degree of displacement in a joint we need a unified mathematical description of translational and rotational displacements. The translational displacement \(\mathbf d \), given by the vector.
Matjaž Mihelj, Tadej Bajd, Aleš Ude, Jadran Lenarčič, Aleš Stanovnik, Marko Munih, Jure Rejc, Sebastjan Šlajpah

Chapter 3. Geometric Description of the Robot Mechanism

The geometric description of the robot mechanism is based on the usage of translational and rotational homogenous transformation matrices. A coordinate frame is attached to the robot base and to each segment of the mechanism, as shown in Fig. 3.1. Then, the corresponding transformation matrices between the consecutive frames are determined. A vector expressed in one of the frames can be transformed into another frame by successive multiplication of intermediate transformation matrices.
Matjaž Mihelj, Tadej Bajd, Aleš Ude, Jadran Lenarčič, Aleš Stanovnik, Marko Munih, Jure Rejc, Sebastjan Šlajpah

Chapter 4. Orientation

We often describe our environment as a three-dimensional world. The world of the roboticist is, however, six-dimensional. He must not only consider the position of an object, but also its orientation. When a robot gripper or end-effector is approaches an object to be grasped, the space angles between the gripper and the object are of the utmost importance.
Matjaž Mihelj, Tadej Bajd, Aleš Ude, Jadran Lenarčič, Aleš Stanovnik, Marko Munih, Jure Rejc, Sebastjan Šlajpah

Chapter 5. Two-Segment Robot Manipulator

Kinematics is part of classic mechanics that study motion without considering the forces which are responsible for this motion. Motion is in general described by trajectories, velocities and accelerations. In robotics we are mainly interested in trajectories and velocities, as both can be measured by the joint sensors.
Matjaž Mihelj, Tadej Bajd, Aleš Ude, Jadran Lenarčič, Aleš Stanovnik, Marko Munih, Jure Rejc, Sebastjan Šlajpah

Chapter 6. Parallel Robots

This chapter deals with the increasingly popular and high-performing robots that are known as parallel robots. Standard mechanisms of industrial robots possess serial kinematic chains in which links and joints alternate as shown in Fig. 6.1.
Matjaž Mihelj, Tadej Bajd, Aleš Ude, Jadran Lenarčič, Aleš Stanovnik, Marko Munih, Jure Rejc, Sebastjan Šlajpah

Chapter 7. Robot Sensors

The human sensory system encompasses sensors of vision and hearing, kinesthetic sensors (movement, force, and touch), sensors of taste and smell. These sensors deliver input signals to the brain which uses this sensory information to build its own image of the environment and takes decisions for further actions. Similar requirements are valid also for robot mechanisms. However, because of the complexity of human sensing, robot sensing is limited to fewer sensors.
Matjaž Mihelj, Tadej Bajd, Aleš Ude, Jadran Lenarčič, Aleš Stanovnik, Marko Munih, Jure Rejc, Sebastjan Šlajpah

Chapter 8. Robot Vision

The task of robot vision is to recognize the geometry of the robot workspace from a digital image. It is our aim to find the relation between the coordinates of a point in the two-dimensional (2D) image and the coordinates of the point in the real three-dimensional (3D) robot environment.
Matjaž Mihelj, Tadej Bajd, Aleš Ude, Jadran Lenarčič, Aleš Stanovnik, Marko Munih, Jure Rejc, Sebastjan Šlajpah

Chapter 9. Trajectory Planning

In previous chapters we studied mathematical models of robot mechanisms. First of all we were interested in robot kinematics and dynamics. Before applying this knowledge to robot control, we must become familiar with the planning of robot motion. The aim of trajectory planning is to generate the reference inputs to the robot control system, which will ensure that the robot end-effector will follow the desired trajectory.
Matjaž Mihelj, Tadej Bajd, Aleš Ude, Jadran Lenarčič, Aleš Stanovnik, Marko Munih, Jure Rejc, Sebastjan Šlajpah

Chapter 10. Robot Control

The problem of robot control can be explained as a computation of the forces or torques which must be generated by the actuators in order to successfully accomplish the robot’s task. The appropriate working conditions must be ensured both during the transient period as well as in the stationary state.
Matjaž Mihelj, Tadej Bajd, Aleš Ude, Jadran Lenarčič, Aleš Stanovnik, Marko Munih, Jure Rejc, Sebastjan Šlajpah

Chapter 11. Robot Environment

This chapter will illustrate robot environments, exemplified by product assembly processes where robots are a part of a production line or as completely independent units. The example can be easily replicated also to other tasks, such as product inspection and testing, welding, painting, pick and place operations etc.
Matjaž Mihelj, Tadej Bajd, Aleš Ude, Jadran Lenarčič, Aleš Stanovnik, Marko Munih, Jure Rejc, Sebastjan Šlajpah

Chapter 12. Collaborative Robots

Until now, industrial robots have always been fast and robust devices that work on specific tasks designed for them. To stay in accordance with the aforementioned rule they were performing behind fixed and interlocked guards and sensitive protective equipment to prevent human intrusion into their workspace. With the introduction of collaborative robots the cages are omitted as those robots are designed to work with humans. They are built with different safety features to prevent collisions, but if a collision occurs, the mechanism will move in the opposite direction or stop completely to avoid causing injury.
Matjaž Mihelj, Tadej Bajd, Aleš Ude, Jadran Lenarčič, Aleš Stanovnik, Marko Munih, Jure Rejc, Sebastjan Šlajpah

Chapter 13. Mobile Robots

A mobile robot is a device that is capable of locomotion. It has the ability to move around its environment using wheels, tracks, legs, or a combination of them. It may also fly, swim, crawl, or roll. Mobile robots are used for various applications in factories (automated guided vehicles), homes (floor cleaning devices), hospitals (transportation of food and medications), in agriculture (fruit and vegetable picking, fertilization, planting), for military as well as search and rescue operations. They address the demand for flexible material handling, the desire for robots to be able to operate on large structures, and the need for rapid reconfiguration of work areas.
Matjaž Mihelj, Tadej Bajd, Aleš Ude, Jadran Lenarčič, Aleš Stanovnik, Marko Munih, Jure Rejc, Sebastjan Šlajpah

Chapter 14. Humanoid Robotics

Even before modern robotics began to develop, philosophers, engineers, and artists were interested in machines similar to humans. The first known example of a humanoid mechanism, which design has been preserved and can still be rebuilt today, is a mechanical knight created by Leonardo da Vinci and presented to the Milanese ruler Ludovico Sforza around 1495.
Matjaž Mihelj, Tadej Bajd, Aleš Ude, Jadran Lenarčič, Aleš Stanovnik, Marko Munih, Jure Rejc, Sebastjan Šlajpah

Chapter 15. Accuracy and Repeatability of Industrial Manipulators

In this chapter we shall briefly consider performance criteria and the methods for testing of industrial robot manipulators as described in the ISO 9283 standard. Before addressing accuracy and repeatability of industrial manipulators we will summarize basic information about robot manipulators.
Matjaž Mihelj, Tadej Bajd, Aleš Ude, Jadran Lenarčič, Aleš Stanovnik, Marko Munih, Jure Rejc, Sebastjan Šlajpah

Backmatter

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