Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
While qualitative studies of science have traditionally focused on sciences as bounded cultures, or cohesive communities that operate in well-defined research settings, Actor-Network Theory (ANT) helps to envision the complex processual formation of scientific associations across a diverse array of social entities and sites. Using the case of race and health disparities research in genetic science, this article explores how ANT’s emphasis on agentic symmetry, and the translation of interests between humans and nonhumans, makes visible the multiplicity of agencies and research institutes that, guided by the US federal government’s Directive No. 15, marshaled genomics to construct race as a social problem. It also examines the multiplicity of methodological strategies such an analysis entails. Here, qualitative analysis of government regulations, policy councils, funding mechanisms, scientific practices, and statements from key scientists in elite biomedical positions is used to show how it came to be that racial governance became an “obligatory passage point” for scientists, and, in a second movement, that genomics became an obligatory passage point for conceiving large-scale analysis of racial stratification. Yet, going beyond current conceptions of ANT, I consider how tracing translation in and beyond the lab can expose a third multiplicity: the multiplicity of obligatory passage points in a given network. I argue that ANT, taken to its logical end, involves study of a plurality of mutually reinforcing actors that co-constitute one another and synergistically push collective agendas.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Begley, S. 2004. Ancestry Trumps Race In Predicting Efficacy Of Drug Treatments. Wall Street Journal, October 29. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB109899480880058817.html
Benjamin, R. 2009. A lab of their own: Genomic sovereignty as postcolonial policy. Policy and Society 28(4): 341–355.
Bliss, C. 2012. Race decoded: The genomic fight for social justice. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.
Bliss, Catherine. 2013. Defining health justice in the postgenomic era. In Postgenomics, eds. Sarah S. Richardson and Hallam Stevens. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Bolnick, D.A., D. Fullwiley, T. Duster, R.S. Cooper, J.H. Fujimura, J. Kahn, J.S. Kaufman, et al. 2007. The science and business of genetic ancestry testing. Science 318(5849): 399–400. CrossRef
Braun, Lundy. 2002. Race, ethnicity, and health: Can genetics explain disparities? Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 45(2): 159–174. doi: 10.1353/pbm.2002.0023.
Buerkle, T. 2000. The “Wondrous Map” of Gene Data : Historic Moment for Humanity’s Blueprint. The New York Times, June 27. http://www.nytimes.com/2000/06/27/news/27iht-genome.2.t_0.html
Burchard, E.G., E. Ziv, N. Coyle, S.L. Gomez, H. Tang, A.J. Karter, J.L. Mountain, et al. 2003. The importance of race and ethnic background in biomedical research and clinical practice. New England Journal of Medicine 348(12): 1170–1175. CrossRef
Callon, M. 1991. Techno-economic networks and irreversibility. In A sociology of monsters. Essays on power, technology and domination, ed. John Law, 132–161. New York: Routledge.
Callon, Michel. 1986. The sociology of an actor-network: The case of the electric vehicle. In Mapping the dynamics of science and technology: Sociology of science in the real world, ed. M. Callon, J. Law, and A. Rip, 19–34. London: Macmillan.
Callon, Michel. 1999. Some elements of a sociology of translation: Domestication of the scallops and the fishermen of St Brieuc Bay. In Science studies reader, ed. Mario Bagioli, 196–223. New York: Routledge.
Carter-Pokras, O., and C. Baquet. 2002. What is a “health disparity”? Public Health Reports 117(5): 426–434.
Chandler, D.L., and G. Staff. 2001. Heredity Study Eyes European Origins. The Boston Globe, May 10. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-8655716.html.
CDC (Center for Disease Control & Prevention). 1993. Use of Race and Ethnicity in Public Health Surveillance Summary of the CDC/ATSDR Workshop. MMWR.
CNN. 2001. Should Doctors Consider Skin Color When Prescribing Drugs? Live at Daybreak, May 3. http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0105/03/lad.09.html
Clarke, A.E. 2005. Situational analysis: Grounded theory after the postmodern turn, 1st ed. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.
Collins, F., and M.K. Mansoura. 2001. The Human Genome Project. Revealing the shared inheritance of all humankind. Cancer 91(1 Suppl): 221–225. CrossRef
Collins, F., and D. Galas. 1993. A new five-year plan for the U.S. Human Genome Project. Science 262(5130): 43–46. CrossRef
Collins, F., L.D. Brooks, and A. Chakravarti. 1998. A DNA polymorphism discovery resource for research on human genetic variation. Genome Research 8(12): 1229–1231.
Cross, K. 2001. Framing whiteness: The human genome diversity project (as seen on TV). Science as Culture 10: 411–438.
DOE (Department of Energy). 1996. To Know Ourselves: The U.S. Department of Energy and the Human Genome Project. http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/publicat/tko/
Duster, T. 2006. Comparative perspectives and competing explanations: Taking on the newly configured reductionist challenge to sociology. American Sociological Review 71(1): 1–15.
Epstein, S. 2007. Inclusion: The politics of difference in medical research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. CrossRef
Exner, D.V., D.L. Dries, M.J. Domanski, and J.N. Cohn. 2001. Lesser response to angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor therapy in black as compared with white patients with left ventricular dysfunction. New England Journal of Medicine 344(18): 1351–1357. CrossRef
Fausto-Sterling, A. 2004. Refashioning race: DNA and the politics of health care. Differences 15(3): 1–37. CrossRef
Fujimura, J.H. 1996. Crafting science: A sociohistory of the quest for the genetics of cancer. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Fujimura, J.H., T. Duster, and R. Rajagopalan. 2008. Introduction: Race, genetics, and disease questions of evidence, matters of consequence. Social Studies of Science 38(5): 643–656.
Fujimura, J.H., and R. Rajagopalan. 2011. Different differences: The use of “genetic ancestry” versus race in biomedical human genetic research. Social Studies of Science 41(1): 5–30.
Fullwiley, D. 2008. The biologistical construction of race: “Admixture” technology and the new genetic medicine. Social Studies of Science 38(5): 695–735. CrossRef
Fullwiley, D. 2007a. Race and genetics: Attempts to define the relationship. BioSocieties 2: 221–237.
Fullwiley, D. 2007b. The molecularization of race: Institutionalizing human difference in pharmacogenetics practice. Science as Culture 16(1): 1–30.
Gannett, L. 2001. Racism and human genome diversity research: The ethical limits of “population thinking. Philosophy of Science 68(3): S479–S492.
Gannett, L. 2004. The biological reification of race. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55(2): 323–345. CrossRef
Hacking, Ian. 2006. Genetics, biosocial groups & the future of identity. Daedalus 135: 81–95.
Hall, E. 2005. The “geneticisation” of heart disease: A network analysis of the production of new genetic knowledge. Social Science & Medicine 60(12): 2673–2683.
Hammonds, Evelynn Maxine, and Rebecca M Herzig. 2008. The Nature of Difference Sciences of Race in the United States from Jefferson to Genomics. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. http://site.ebrary.com/id/10276627.
Hartigan, John. 2008. Is race still socially constructed? The recent controversy over race and medical genetics. Science as Culture 17(2): 163–193. doi: 10.1080/09505430802062943.
Henig, R.M. 2004. The Genome in Black and White (and Gray). New York Times, October 10. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/10/10/magazine/10GENETIC.html.
HHS (US Department of Health and Human Services). 2000. The National Human Genome Research Institute Strategic Plan for Reducing Health Disparities: Fiscal Years 2002–2006. www.nimhd.nih.gov/our…/strategic/pubs/volumei_031003edrev.pdf.
Highfield, R. 2004. “Ethnic drug” raises fears over race and genetics—Telegraph. Daily Telegraph, November 1, p. 13.
Hunt, L.M., and M.S. Megyesi. 2008. The ambiguous meanings of the racial/ethnic categories routinely used in human genetics research. Social Science & Medicine 66(2): 349–361.
Jasanoff, S. 2011. Reframing rights: Bioconstitutionalism in the genetic age. MIT Press.
Jasanoff, S (ed.). 2004. Ordering Knowledge, Ordering Society. In States of Knowledge: The Co-Production of Science and the Social Order, 13–45. New York: Routledge.
Jones, M. 2011. Senate Plan Trims NHGRI Budget, Urges “Creative” Allocating at NIH | GenomeWeb Daily News | GenomeWeb. http://www.genomeweb.com/senate-plan-trims-nhgri-budget-urges-creative-allocating-nih.
Kahn, J.D. 2009. Beyond BiDil: The Expanding Embrace of Race in Biomedical Research and Product Development. SSRN eLibrary. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1612331.
Kaiser, J. 2011. Spending Deal Spares NIH Major Cuts. Science Insider, April 12. http://news.sciencemag.org/scienceinsider/2011/04/2011-spending-deal-spares-nih.html.
Kaplan, J.M. 2010. When socially determined categories make biological realities. The Monist 93(2): 283–299. CrossRef
Knight, D. 1997. Gene Project Deemed Unethical. IPS, November 1. http://www.ipsnews.net/1997/11/united-states-gene-project-deemed-unethical/.
Latour, B. 2005. Reassembling the social: An introduction to actor-network-theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Latour, B. 1992. Where are the missing masses? The sociology of a few mundane artifacts. Change RA-2(2): 225–258.
Latour, B. 1999. Give me a laboratory and I will raise the world. In Science studies reader, ed. Mario Bagioli, 141–170. New York: Routledge.
Law, J. 1988. Notes on the Theory of Translation. In Forskning og innovasjonspolitikk, ed. K. H. Sorensen. STS Report no. 6. Trondheim: Senter for Vitenskap Teknologi og Samfunn.
Law, J., and J. Hassard. 1999. Actor network theory and after. Oxford: Blackwell.
Lee, S.S. 2007. The ethical implications of stratifying by race in pharmacogenomics. Clinical Pharmacological Therapeutics 81(1): 122–5.
Maglo, Koffi N. 2011. The case against biological realism about race: From Darwin to the post-genomic era. Perspectives on Science 19(4): 361–390.
Montoya, M.J. 2011. Making the Mexican diabetic: Race, science, and the genetics of inequality. Berkeley: University of California Press. CrossRef
Murray, T. 2001. Race, ethnicity, and science: The haplotype genome project. The Hastings Center Report 31(5): 7.
Myser, C. 2003. Differences from somewhere: The normativity of whiteness in bioethics in the United States. American Journal of Bioethics 3(2): 1–11.
Nelson, A. 2008a. The factness of Diaspora. In Revisiting race in a genomic age, ed. B. Koenig, S.S.J. Lee, and S.S. Richardson, 253–268. Piscataway: Rutgers University Press.
Nelson, A. 2008b. Bio science: Genetic genealogy testing and the pursuit of African ancestry. Social Studies of Science 38(5): 759–783.
NHGRI. 2012. Frequently Asked Questions About the Proposed NHGRI Reorganization. http://www.genome.gov/27546602.
NHGRI. 2003. National Human Genome Research Institute NIH Health Disparities Strategic Plan Fiscal Years 2004–2008. www.genome.gov/pages/research/der/…/nhgrihealthdisparitiesplan.pdf.
NIH (National Institutes of Health). 1993. The NIH Revitalization Act of 1993 Vol. PL: 103–43.
NIH (National Institutes of Health). 2002. Report of the First Community Consultation on the Responsible Collection and Use of Samples for Genetic Research. http://www.nigms.nih.gov/News/Reports/community_consultation.htm.
NIH (National Institutes of Health). 1990. Understanding Our Genetic Inheritance: The U.S. Human Genome Project. The First Five Years: Fiscal Years 1991–1995. http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/project/5yrplan/summary.shtml.
OMB (Office of Management & Budget). 1978. OMB Directive No. 15. OMB Publications Office.
Parthasarathy, S. 2005. Architectures of genetic medicine: comparing genetic testing for breast cancer in the USA and the UK. Social Studies of Science 35(1): 5–40. CrossRef
Phillips, K.A., D.L. Veenstra, E. Oren, J.K. Lee, and W. Sadee. 2001. Potential role of pharmacogenomics in reducing adverse drug reactions a systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Association 286(18): 2270–2279. CrossRef
Phimister, E.G. 2003. Medicine and the racial divide. New England Journal of Medicine 348(12): 1081–1082. CrossRef
Rabeharisoa, V., and P. Bourret. 2009. Staging and weighting evidence in biomedicine comparing clinical practices in cancer genetics and psychiatric genetics. Social Studies of Science 39(5): 691–715. CrossRef
Reardon, J. 2005. Race to the finish: Identity and governance in an age of genomics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Reardon, J., and P. TallBear. 2012. “Your DNA Is Our History”: Genomics, anthropology, and the construction of whiteness as property. Current Anthropology 55: S233–S245.
Riederer, R. 2011. In the Next Round of Budget Talks, Big Cuts for Health Research Are Coming. The Nation, April 11. http://www.thenation.com/article/159847/next-round-budget-talks-big-cuts-health-research-are-coming.
Roberts, D. 2011. Fatal invention: How science, politics, and big business re-create race in the Twenty-first Century. The New Press.
Rose, Nikolas S. 2007. The politics of life itself: Biomedicine, power, and subjectivity in the twenty-first century. Information Series. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Rotman, D. (2005). Race and Medicine - Technology Review. Technology Review. http://www.technologyreview.com/biomedicine/14301/.
Satel, S. 2002. I Am a Racially Profiling Doctor. New York Times, May 5. http://www.nytimes.com/2002/05/05/magazine/i-am-a-racially-profiling-doctor.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm.
Satel, S. 2002. Racist Doctors? Don’t Believe the Media Hype. Wall Street Journal, April 4. http://www.aei.org/article/health/racist-doctors-dont-believe-the-media-hype/.
Schwartz, R.S. 2001. Racial profiling in medical research. The New England Journal of Medicine 344(18): 1392–3.
Seigel, Robert. 2001. New study raises questions about when it’s appropriate to focus on race in medical research. All Things Considered, NPR, May 2. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1-43931146.html.
Shim, J.K. 2005. Constructing “race” across the science-lay divide racial formation in the epidemiology and experience of cardiovascular disease. Social Studies of Science 35(3): 405–436. CrossRef
Shwed, Uri, and P.S. Bearman. 2010. The temporal structure of scientific consensus formation. American Sociological Review 75(6): 817–840. CrossRef
Star, S.L., and G.C. Bowker. 1997. How things (actor-net)work: Classification, magic and the ubiquity of standards. Philosophia 25(3–4): 195–220.
Stoto, M.A., R. Behrens, and C. Rosemont. 1990. Healthy People 2000: Citizens Chart the Course. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Tutton, R. 2009. Biobanks and the inclusion of racial/ethnic minorities. Race/Ethnicity: Multidisciplinary Global Contexts, 75–95.
Ukoli, F.A., et al. 2010. The association of plasma fatty acids with prostate cancer risk in African Americans and Africans. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 21(1 Suppl): 127–147. CrossRef
UNESCO. 1994. Human Genome Diversity Project, address delivered by Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Stanford University, to a special meeting of UNESCO, September 21. www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/505327-ILeo4n/…/505327.pdf.
UNESCO. 1995. Bioethics and Human Population Genetics Research, November 15.
Wade, N. 2004. Toward the First Racial Medicine. New York Times, November 13 http://www.nytimes.com/2004/11/13/opinion/13sat2.html.
Wade, N. 2002. Race Is Seen as Real Guide To Track Roots of Disease. New York Times, July 30. http://www.nytimes.com/2002/07/30/science/race-is-seen-as-real-guide-to-track-roots-of-disease.html.
Wade, N. 2002b. Race Seen as Crucial to Medical Research. Toronto Star, August 2, F5.
Wade, N. 2001. For Genome Mappers, the Tricky Terrain of Race Requires Some Careful Navigating. New York Times, July 20. http://www.nytimes.com/2001/07/20/us/for-genome-mappers-the-tricky-terrain-of-race-requires-some-careful-navigating.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm.
Weiss, R. 2000. The Promise of Precision Prescriptions; “Pharmacogenomics” Also Raises Issues of Race, Privacy Series: The Human Blueprint; Matching Drugs to Genes. Washington Post, June 24, A1.
Weiss, R. 2003. Genome Project Completed; Findings May Alter Humanity’s Sense of Itself, Experts Predict. Washington Post, April 15, A6.
Whitmarsh, I. 2008. Biomedical ambiguity: Race, asthma, and the contested meaning of genetic research in the Caribbean. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Williams, Johnny E. 2011. They say it’s in the genes: Decoding racial ideology in genomics. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 40(5): 550–581. doi: 10.1177/0891241611412779.
Wood, A.J. 2001. Racial differences in the response to drugs–pointers to genetic differences. The New England Journal of Medcine 344(18): 1394–6.
Xie, H.G., R.B. Kim, A.J. Wood, and C.M. Stein. 2001. Molecular basis of ethnic differences in drug disposition and response. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 41: 815–850. CrossRef
Yancy, C.W., et al. 2001. Race and the response to adrenergic blockade with carvedilol in patients with chronic heart failure. New England Journal of Medicine 344(18): 1358–1365. CrossRef
- Translating Racial Genomics: Passages in and Beyond the Lab
- Springer US
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta