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This edited volume highlights the use and practice of values in Organization Development (OD). It addresses how those values have changed over time, how they are expressed in OD’s approach to consulting, the process of making value-based decisions, and how to deal with value dilemmas and value conflicts. OD scholars and practitioners will learn about the balance of values in practice, particularly as the business outcomes may overtake positive humanistic concerns given intense pressures to enhance organizational productivity year over year.



Chapter 1. Enacting Values-Based Change: Organization Development in Action

As a field, organization development (OD) is deeply grounded in a set of core values and principles of practice about how one should work with and in organizations. These perspectives are based on a wide range of theoretical influences on the evolution of the field, including social psychology, group dynamics, psychotherapy, industrial-organizational psychology, participative management, and sociology. Early OD also operationalized new management and behavioral science research that provided evidence of better ways to treat people and run organizations (see Jamieson & Gellermann, 2014, for an overview). It is also the result of a number of external forces including the social milieu of the 1950–1960s, and a response to many of the troubling organization, management, and Human Resources (HR) practices that dominated in the industrial age. At that time, overtly negative, oppressive, bureaucratic, inhumane, and unfair practices were commonplace, and OD practitioners were developing interventions and processes to drive positive changes and instill more empowering and developmental ways of managing organizations and their people. It was an uphill battle early on in the field and still is in many places; however, the values and practices of the field are a key differentiator of OD, particularly when compared to other types of management consulting and change approaches (Church & Jamieson, 2014).
David W. Jamieson, Allan H. Church, John D. Vogelsang

Section 1


Chapter 2. Deconstructing OD: A Closer Look at the Emergence of OD Values and Their Impact on the Field

William Pasmore explores the possibility that organization development (OD) is made up of three factions with different value preferences. There is the humanistic faction (doing the right thing), the bottom line faction (doing things right), and scholar-practitioner faction (what is proven and what is possible).
William Pasmore

Chapter 3. A Look in the Mirror: Current Research Findings on the Values and Practice of OD

While anyone can implement a certain set of interventions, one of the key aspects that makes organization development (OD) unique is its core values. It is critical then to take the pulse of and understand the values and perceptions of practitioners in the field of OD periodically in order to understand how things have changed or stayed the same over time. Recently, we undertook such a survey research study as a follow-up to one that had been conducted back in the early 1990s. The purpose of this chapter is to summarize the key highlights of that research. While additional findings can be found elsewhere, the intent here is to focus on the highlights and reflect on what these findings tell us about the current and future state of the values inherent in the OD community today. More specifically, how have we evolved in the last 20 years and where are we heading in the future as a profession?
Allan H. Church, Amanda C. Shull, W. Warner Burke

Chapter 4. Tell Me a Story: Exploring Values in Practice in the Field of Organization Development

Organization development (OD) is consistently described as an applied and values-driven field. While much has been written on the theory of values in the field, little has been written about values from the perspective of practitioner. Because values influence the way we think, feel, and act, it is essential to OD practice (from intervention and design to processes and methods) that dialogue which calls forth a value consciousness be kept alive. In this chapter, the topic of values in OD is explored in three stages. First, with an historic overview of values in the field; second, with an in-depth of account of a three-year collaborative research project exploring the topic; and finally, with a collaborative process which invites others to join in and expand the conversation.
Jackie Milbrandt, Daphne DePorres, Christopher M. Linski, Emily Ackley

Chapter 5. What Is Happening with Values in Organization Development?

An appreciation of core organization development (OD) values, the consultant’s personal values, and organizational values is central to an understanding of the origins and practice of OD. This chapter explores the relationship between values and performance as an internal or external OD practitioner.
Mike Horne

Section 2


Chapter 6. Valuing Both the Journey and the Destination in Organization Development

In this chapter, Gervase Bushe and Robert Marshak argue that since the 1980s organization development (OD) has been framed by a meta image of itself that no longer serves it well, and that a new image of what OD is that emphasizes a different value proposition for the field is needed. The current dominant image focuses on the journey of change without much emphasis on the destination. They discuss some of the value dilemmas this creates for the field and its practitioners and suggest we would be well advised to return to the roots of OD and fashion a new generative image that is more concerned with the destination, and view the journey as a means to that end.
Gervase R. Bushe, Robert J. Marshak

Chapter 7. Values in the Application of OD to Mergers and Acquisitions

Mergers and acquisitions (M&As) are an odd organizational phenomenon. Although they fail to achieve their financial or strategic goals in about 75% of all cases, leaders regularly use them to achieve desired organizational growth and change. The manner in which most M&As are conceived runs counter to rules of effective leadership and change management—they are characterized by inadequate vision, communication, resources, and teamwork. How does one apply organization development (OD) values and practices in a situation like this? This chapter describes the M&A process and discusses incongruences between OD values and common leadership practices in M&A. It concludes with a look ahead to the emerging threats to and opportunities for utilizing OD in M&A.
Mitchell Lee Marks

Chapter 8. Organization Development and Talent Management: Beyond the Triple Bottom-Line

There is a growing movement to broaden the definition of organizational effectiveness. Fewer and fewer countries and societies are willing to accept that financial performance is all that matters when it comes to organizational effectiveness. The movement to hold organizations accountable for their environmental impact is one clear example of this change. More governments are demanding that organizations monitor and provide effectiveness reports on their impact on the environment. In addition, there is a growing demand that companies in developed countries monitor the working conditions and experiences of their employees in the developing countries.
Edward E. Lawler

Chapter 9. An Integrative Framework for Responsible Leadership Practice

Responsible leadership theory is a relatively newer addition to the field of leadership studies. It promises to strengthen the knowledge and practice of leadership by bringing more integration to the existing leadership conceptions and to enhance leadership’s accountability toward stakeholders and outcomes. The existing work around responsible leadership is contested and emergent in nature. Specifically, a few different conceptions of responsible leadership have been offered and most are grounded in the for-profit, private sector context. These existing approaches to responsible leadership do not fully attend to the values and ethics considerations relevant across multiple sectors. In this chapter, I outline and discuss a framework of responsible leadership, with an integral values-driven focus. The framework, unlike its predecessors, is intended to be applicable to multiple sectors and contexts.
S. Aqeel Tirmizi

Section 3


Chapter 10. Playing the Long Game in a Short-Term World: Consequences and Strategies for Racial Justice Work

Given a renewed sense of urgency in matters of race and racial justice, activist organizations in particular are eager to demonstrate impact and be seen as contributing to the end of racial injustice. A sense of urgency and priority on action can unwittingly reinforce the systems of injustice such organizations aim to challenge. After locating my own cultural orientation to diversity work, I describe approaches—systemic, being, process, and development—that challenge the short-term mindset characterized by the opposite orientations of linear, action, expert, and performance and yet, paradoxically, provide demonstrable results. I conclude with dilemmas created by such positioning.
Heather Berthoud

Chapter 11. Incorporating Diversity and Inclusion as Core Values in Organization Development Practice

This chapter argues that diversity and inclusion are and should be at the core of organization development (OD). It describes what is meant by diversity and inclusion—especially as perspectives, practices, and values crucially relevant to OD practice—makes the connections of diversity and inclusion values and practices with OD more explicit, and suggests how to be more intentional and focused in integrating diversity and inclusion as core values in OD practice.
Bernardo M. Ferdman

Chapter 12. Practicing OD for Social Justice

This chapter explores the intersection of organization development (OD) and social justice work. OD’s open system of ideas, principles, and practices has allowed the authors to create an approach to consultation rooted in OD frameworks and social justice movements. The chapter illuminates values that have emerged from working with traditionally marginalized individuals and organizations, acknowledges the influence of classic OD values on the authors’ practices, explores conflicts and tensions inherent in this intersection, and offers insights about the mutual influence of OD and social justice. It concludes with key principles for sustainable practice of OD through a social justice lens.
Pat Vivian, Shana Hormann, Sarah Murphy-Kangas, Kristin L. Cox, Becka Tilsen

Section 4


Chapter 13. Making Value-Based Decisions and Dealing with Value Dilemma and Conflict While Working on OD in a Global Context

This chapter discusses the application of different types of values in shaping organization development (OD) practice in a global context. The types of values that inform and shape OD practice in supporting organizations are examined as well as how value dilemmas and conflictual situations are handled. Three case situations are used to illustrate these issues.
Mee-Yan Cheung-Judge

Chapter 14. Organization Development in Action: Values-Based Coaching

This chapter examines the integral relationship between coaching and values, and the importance of coaches examining and being transparent about their own values. Distinctions between coaching and organization development are explored, highlighting the commonalities between both in helping relationships, and values are shown to be a key component of “self as instrument.” A set of “core values for coaching” is proposed and compared with competencies that have been identified by professional coaching organizations. Descriptive scenarios give real-world examples of values-in-action, including reflection questions for the practitioner. Lastly, the role of values in coaching as a field is discussed, and a proposal is offered for values to be integrated into coach training and education.
Mary Wayne Bush, John L. Bennett

Chapter 15. Organization Development and Talent Management: Divergent Sides of the Same Values Equation

The purpose of this chapter is to explore the nature of the values divergence and convergence between OD and TM in more detail. After a brief introduction of the origins of the two areas of practice, we will focus first on three key areas where OD and TM differ significantly in their approach. These differences represent values dilemmas in practice, in that many OD professionals today are finding themselves either entering TM roles, offering their consulting services to organizational practitioners in TM functions in organizations (i.e., these individuals are often the gatekeepers into these areas of work in organizations today), or even competing with TM approaches for the same types of services.
Allan H. Church, Amanda C. Shull, W. Warner Burke


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