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Über dieses Buch

Without influence, managers are ineffective. In today's workplace, managers need to influence up, down and increasingly, sideways as organizations become less hierarchical. This book is expertly designed to diagnose and develop managerial influence, focusing on four key strategies: investigating, calculating, motivating and collaborating.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Introduction

Introduction

I wrote this book because most managers I consult to still struggle with exercising their influence. The days of command and control are over. Traditional power-bases are breaking down. For instance, teachers no longer have the authority in the classroom they once had. Police officers can no longer rely on their uniform to command respect. Managers can’t depend exclusively on their hierarchical position to get things done anymore. Learning to influence is now more important than formal status and authority.

Tim Baker

Understanding and Developing Power

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. The Power of Position

As positions go, there doesn’t seem to be a more powerful position on the planet than president of the United States. In this position the holder of the office is chief executive officer of the world’s only superpower. The US president is in charge of millions of employees – some 2 per cent of the US labor force. The occupier of office is commander-in-chief of the strongest army on earth. Wherever he travels, he is escorted by the tightest security detail. At all times he is accompanied by the so-called “football ” – a briefcase containing America’s nuclear launch codes. The president negotiates treaties, pardons criminals and can appoint approximately 4000 senior officials with the consent of the Senate. These officials include ambassadors, judges, generals and cabinet ministers. It is hard to imagine a more powerful post in the world today.

Tim Baker

Chapter 2. Personal Power

In the book, Shackleton’s Way: Leadership Lessons from the Great Antarctic Explorer, Boggon et al explain how Sir Ernest Shackleton was able to use personal power to lead his 27-strong team, stranded in Antarctica with no communication with the outside world. The original goal was to lead a successful expedition to the South Pole. Once he realized that this was not possible, Shackleton’s goal shifted to getting all his team home safely, which he did; a remarkable achievement.

Tim Baker

Chapter 3. Five Tools to Enhance Organizational Status

Gerry Gleeson has known power at the highest levels. He retired from the chair of the Sydney Harbor Authority in October 2004 after being appointed as the first chair by New South Wales premier, Bob Carr, in 1999. The position gave Gleeson formidable powers as the authority controlled assets worth more than $1.4AUD billion, including Darling Harbor, the Rocks, Circular Quay, Luna Park and the most valuable property portfolio in Australia. But his relationship with powerful people and powerful positions goes back to 1977, when he was picked by the then premier, Neville Wren, to run the premier’s department. In this position, Gleeson became the most fearsome figure in the New South Wales public service for more than three decades.

Tim Baker

Chapter 4. Nine Tools to Build Personal Power

Maintaining good relations with your boss is absolutely crucial, as has been demonstrated by the unfair dismissal case in Melbourne, Australia, where Bruce Guthrie, the former editor-in-chief of the Herald Sun, sued News Limited for sacking him 15 months before his three-year contract was due to expire. One of the reasons for his dismissal was the alleged poisonous relationship he had with his boss, Peter Blunden, the managing director of the Herald and Weekly Times, with whom he is said to have clashed from day one.

Tim Baker

The Framework

Frontmatter

Chapter 5. Influencing Capabilities Framework

Mary, a quality control engineer with a reserved personality, is headhunted to join a leading engineering firm that produces electrical components. She joins the team as quality control manager, and settles in quickly. She develops good working relationships all round. But she becomes increasingly frustrated with her colleagues after a while. Mary observes her peers making too many rash decisions without careful consideration of alternative options. There is a clash of styles. Mary sees herself as more quietly determined and practical in her approach. In her view, her colleagues are more opinionated, energetic and tough-minded. In short, Mary thinks her approach is more logical and practical and her team’s approach more emotional and relational.

Tim Baker

Chapter 6. The Four Influencing Strategies

In this chapter, I define the four influencing strategies of the influencing capabilities framework introduced at the end of Chapter 5. After a brief introduction to the investigation, calculation, motivation and collaboration strategies, I will unpack the four supporting capabilities for each strategy. More specifically, each of the four capabilities in the framework that support a particular influencing strategy is broken down into several elements. These elements are discussed in this chapter. The aim is to define the four influencing strategies. In the next chapter you can analyze your own influencing preferences from an understanding of the framework. Before that, you might, as you read the capabilities in this chapter, consider which you tend to favor and which you don’t.

Tim Baker

Chapter 7. Influencing Capabilities Profile

This chapter gives you the opportunity to complete your influencing capabilities profile. The profile will indicate your preferences when you are communicating to influence others. It is likely you favor these preferences when introducing a new proposal, idea or process to your team. Having an awareness of your influencing profile helps you to develop a targeted action plan. The plan will assist you to enhance your capability to influence. This is done by broadening the approaches and styles you currently use to persuade others.

Tim Baker

Chapter 8. Interpreting Your Profile

Sarah had now completed her influencing capability profile and was sitting with her manager, Rachel. They were reviewing the results together. As it turns out, Sarah was categorized as an investigator. She liked to gather her facts and argue her case assertively when trying to persuade others. Rachel confirmed this from her observations of Sarah in her managerial role. Of the four influencing strategy scores, the lowest was for collaboration. Sarah leads a small team of four town planners in a professional consulting firm. They all thought alike, or at least so Sarah thinks. Being town planners they seemed to respond to well thought out arguments that were structured and based on logic.

Tim Baker

Leaders of Influence

Frontmatter

Chapter 9. The Inquisitive Investigator

A small firm of marketing consultants is going through a rough patch and needs to cut their business overheads. Sue-Ellen, the owner of the business, tells her staff of eight that she wants them to put forward cost-cutting ideas. She points out to them all in a meeting that this does not include making anyone redundant and further, if the ideas are good, this may secure their jobs in the future.

Tim Baker

Chapter 10. The Clear Calculator

The new government has a mandate and clear agenda to build a highperforming public sector. This renewal agenda requires an executive leadership team that is accountable for the delivery of the government’s program across all government agencies. Within six months of the election, the new government provides a process for assessing the performance of senior executives to drive this ambitious program. The assessment program is in line with the principles of merit and is used for the recruitment and selection of future executives.

Tim Baker

Chapter 11. The Mindful Motivator

Medtronic is a wonderful illustration of the effective use of motivation as a strategy of influence. This multinational company is headquartered in Minneapolis and develops medical devices. By working closely with healthcare professionals around the world, Medtronic creates therapies to help make it possible for millions of people to resume everyday activities, return to work, and live better and longer lives. As a global leader in medical technology, Medtronic serves patients, and partners with medical professionals in 120 countries.

Tim Baker

Chapter 12. The Collegial Collaborator

Ricardo Semler, in his book, Maverick: The Success Story behind the World’s Most Unusual Workplace,1illustrates his commitment to using collaborative influence to great effect. Semler is a leading proponent of what has variously been called “participation management”, “corporate democracy”, and “the company as village”. He has put in place the philosophy of participative management first proposed by Douglas McGregor in his book, The Human Side of Enterprise. McGregor argued that organizations thrive best by trusting employees to apply their creativity and ingenuity in service to the whole enterprise, and to make important decisions close to the flow of work.

Tim Baker

Influencing Capabilities and More Tools

Frontmatter

Chapter 13. Investigation: Gathering Evidence

Welcome to Part IV. In this part of The New Influencing Toolkit, I devote a short chapter to each of the 16 capabilities in the influencing capabilities framework on page 55. Specifically, I define the capacity, consider its elements, and then provide you with several tools you can add to your toolkit. This will add to the 14 tools we have already covered for enhancing personal and positional power in Part I. I encourage you to apply as many of these tools as you can, particularly for those capabilities where your score from the profile is low.

Tim Baker

Chapter 14. Investigation: Generating Ideas

This chapter covers some tools in the second of the four investigation capabilities: generating ideas. Generating ideas in this context means coming up with specific recommendations that are practical and supported by data. You can conduct a thorough investigation but then fail to capitalize on the evidence. Conversely, you can generate an idea but not be able to back it up with evidence. When it comes to influencing using the investigation strategy, gathering evidence and generating ideas go hand-in-hand.

Tim Baker

Chapter 15. Investigation: Asserting Ideas

In this chapter, we explore the third capability of the investigation strategy. To be influential, a leader has to communicate assertively. Assertive communication doesn’t mean being aggressive. When required, a leader has to be firm and direct, either by putting forward a rational argument or expressing a vision in an inspiring way. In fact, employees expect their manager to be forthright in what they want occasionally. This is what we referred to in Chapter 5 as using a push style of communication. Of course, not all circumstances warrant a forceful communication style, but many do. Formal presentations, written reports and some one-to-one conversations are three avenues where assertively persuading is paramount. We cover these opportunities briefly below.

Tim Baker

Chapter 16. Investigation: Countering Arguments

This chapter deals with effective ways of countering arguments to a leader’s proposals. Countering the ideas of others is important when they can potentially derail a leader’s direction. Effectively opposing the arguments of others is the classic skill of good debaters. To be influential at countering the ideas of others, leaders have to be self-assured and base their rebuttal on clear and calm reasoning. Coupled with a strong and assured opposing argument, the leader ought to be tactful with a degree of sensitivity for the other person’s position; a delicate and crucial balancing act. To effectively contest the ideas of others, leaders practice three skills. These abilities are anticipating (wherever possible) the probable objections, a willingness to play “devil’s advocate”, and testing emphatically the opposing arguments and assumptions. We look at these three tools in more detail.

Tim Baker

Chapter 17. Calculation: Weighing Options

Now that we have looked at the four capabilities supporting the investigation strategy in the past four chapters, we turn our attention to the calculation capabilities. Specifically, in the next four chapters, we will look at the four supporting capabilities: weighing options, communicating standards, providing feedback and offering concessions. In this chapter we discuss weighing options.

Tim Baker

Chapter 18. Calculation: Communicating Standards

This chapter looks at how leaders can communicate the standards they require from their employees. Leaders who favor calculation are constantly communicating proper standards in the working environment. They do this in a variety of ways. For instance, a manager implicitly communicates his or her standards by modeling the behavior they expect of others. Calculators are not shy about setting targets for others to accomplish. Once these targets are established, calculators are inclined to review those targets and provide feedback. Modeling behavior, setting targets and reviewing targets are three critical elements involved in communicating standards and expectations.

Tim Baker

Chapter 19. Calculation: Providing Feedback

In this chapter, we examine the calculation capability of providing feedback. Timely and constructive feedback provides an important opportunity for a leader to influence the behavior of their team, both collectively and individually. This feedback can be either positive, in the sense that it reinforces correct behavior, or negative, in the sense that it is corrective and developmental. My experience in 21 industries I have consulted for is that feedback is either done poorly or too infrequently. We’ll look at the difference between summative and formative feedback and share the After Action Review technique that can help to provide useful avenues to offer feedback – a critical capability of the calculation strategy.

Tim Baker

Chapter 20. Calculation: Offering Concessions

The final capability supporting the calculation strategy of influence is the readiness and ability to offer important and timely concessions to a person or group that the leader is trying to influence. This is a tactic for the leader to ultimately get what they want. To do this successfully, a leader needs to be willing to be flexible at times.

Tim Baker

Chapter 21. Motivation: Communicating Vision

The next four chapters, including this one, cover the four capabilities for motivation. In this chapter, we consider the first capability: communicating vision. To communicate vision effectively means the leader creates and shares their vision, goal or destination with their team so they not only understand it, but wholeheartedly embrace it. To effectively adopt a vision is to foster an emotional attachment to that vision. Understanding the vision is one thing, but to support it is another thing altogether. Comprehending it is the logical aspect of communicating a vision. Being inspired by it is the emotional component of communication. It’s the emotional approach that we will concentrate on here.

Tim Baker

Chapter 22. Motivation: Generating Enthusiasm

Having the ability to generate enthusiasm in the team is a great asset for a leader to possess. In the first instance, there must be a willingness to be enthused from the employees’ perspective. But to get people excited and engaged about a vision is largely the responsibility of the leader. There are two powerful tools for building a sense of excitement and passion: the use of storytelling and applying the G.R.O.W. coaching model. Used skillfully, both of these tools can engender heightened motivation. But before I discuss these two techniques, let’s identify some of the factors in the workplace that can create a motivational environment, and some factors that detract from this. To do this, I draw from the well-documented research of Frederick Herzberg. Building enthusiasm in a team for the work they do ought to be the ultimate aim of the leader.

Tim Baker

Chapter 23. Motivation: Connecting Emotionally

Motivation and collaboration influencing strategies are based on building emotional connections to the leader’s vision, or between colleagues respectively. However, there is considerable crossover between the two. Connection to a vision positively influences team harmony, and team accord can bring about a clarity in direction. I will focus here on two tools for bonding between employees. These tools will undoubtedly assist indirectly with engendering common vision. Both tools are potent and proven ways of building trust and commitment between colleagues. The first of these two tools is Grant-a-wish and the second is called Pay a compliment. I have used them on several occasions, and they work well to influence the emotional connections between people at work.

Tim Baker

Chapter 24. Motivation: Building Morale

Cultivating a sense of belonging and building common purpose is the core of building morale. Developing esprit de corps is an important capability of motivational influence. In this chapter, we look at three tools and concepts for doing this: strengths-based leadership, good news stories at team meetings and scenario planning. Each of these ideas lifts team spirit.

Tim Baker

Chapter 25. Collaboration: Sharing Ownership

The final four chapters of The New Influencing Toolkit cover the four capabilities for collaboration: sharing ownership, communicating openly, listening actively and building trust. In this chapter we consider the first capability: sharing ownership.

Tim Baker

Chapter 26. Collaboration: Communicating Openly

In this chapter we cover several tools for communicating openly. It is not possible for a leader to create a collaborative working environment unless they communicate openly and honestly with their colleagues.

Tim Baker

Chapter 27. Collaboration: Listening Actively

Listening actively is defined as the capability of practicing non-defensive and empathic listening. Many difficult situations can be resolved by practicing active listening. It is one of the most under-utilized interpersonal skills of management. Despite this, to collaborate in an influential manner, listening actively is a vitally important capability to changing or modifying behavior.

Tim Baker

Chapter 28. Collaboration: Building Trust

In this final chapter, we discuss the capability of building trust. As we know, it is much easier to lose trust than it is to gain it. What’s more, you can’t be a successful collaborator without a consistently high level of trust, and the reverse is true too: you need a high level of trust to collaborate. Collaboration and trust go hand-in-hand. Building trust is the fourth and final core capability of using the collaboration influencing strategy.

Tim Baker

Backmatter

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