Skip to main content
main-content

Tipp

Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen

Erschienen in: Marketing Letters 4/2018

01.12.2018

Are large portions always bad? Using the Delboeuf illusion on food packaging to nudge consumer behavior

verfasst von: Olivia Petit, Carlos Velasco, Charles Spence

Erschienen in: Marketing Letters | Ausgabe 4/2018

Einloggen, um Zugang zu erhalten
share
TEILEN

Abstract

Exaggerated portion sizes are generally pictured on the front of product packaging in order to stimulate food craving and encourage consumer purchasing decisions. However, one problem with such images is that they can set inappropriate norms as far as food consumption is concerned and hence result in people serving themselves more than they otherwise might. The research reported here builds on the fact that depicting a food portion in a smaller (vs. larger) container (i.e., plate or bowl) creates the illusion of a larger (vs. smaller) portion, although the actual quantity of food remains the same (this is known as the Delboeuf illusion). Here, we demonstrate in two experiments that by presenting food in a smaller container (thus giving rise to the illusion of a relatively larger portion), participants have higher purchase intentions (study 1) and perceive the food as being more appetizing (study 2) but, crucially, decrease the size of the portion that they serve themselves (studies 1 and 2). Overall, by giving the impression of a larger portion on product packaging, the Delboeuf illusion could potentially be used to nudge consumers to find food more desirable, while at the same time leading them to reduce their serving, thus potentially benefitting both consumers and the food industry.
Anhänge
Nur mit Berechtigung zugänglich
Fußnoten
1
Note that Wansink et al. (2005), as well as other work by Brian Wansink, has recently come under scrutiny, and it appears that it contains some errors (e.g., https://​medium.​com/​@jamesheathers/​sprite-case-study-5-sunset-for-souper-man-ee898b6af9f5). However, other researchers in the field have also studied and put forward the portion size effect (Holden et al. 2016). It should, however, be noted that some meta-analyses, such as Robinson et al. (2014), did not find a consistent effect of dishware size on food intake.
 
2
openfoodfacts.​org/ is a free and open database of food products from around the world, generally providing a picture of the food packaging. We have listed 128 packets of corn flakes and 224 packets of cheese pizza sold in 26 countries. All of the pizza plates were small, and we only found three bowls of cereals that were not small rimmed.
 
Literatur
Zurück zum Zitat Aglioti, S., DeSouza, J. F., & Goodale, M. A. (1995). Size-contrast illusions deceive the eye but not the hand. Current Biology, 5(6), 679–685. CrossRef Aglioti, S., DeSouza, J. F., & Goodale, M. A. (1995). Size-contrast illusions deceive the eye but not the hand. Current Biology, 5(6), 679–685. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Akyol, A., Ayaz, A., Inan-Eroglu, E., Cetin, C., & Samur, G. (2018). Impact of three different plate colours on short-term satiety and energy intake: a randomized controlled trial. Nutrition Journal, 17(1), 46. CrossRef Akyol, A., Ayaz, A., Inan-Eroglu, E., Cetin, C., & Samur, G. (2018). Impact of three different plate colours on short-term satiety and energy intake: a randomized controlled trial. Nutrition Journal, 17(1), 46. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Barsalou, L. W. (2008). Grounded cognition. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 617–645. CrossRef Barsalou, L. W. (2008). Grounded cognition. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 617–645. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Basso, F., Petit, O., Le Bellu, S., Lahlou, S., Cancel, A., & Anton, J. L. (2018). Taste at first (person) sight: visual perspective modulates brain activity implicitly associated with viewing unhealthy but not healthy foods. Appetite, 128, 242–254. CrossRef Basso, F., Petit, O., Le Bellu, S., Lahlou, S., Cancel, A., & Anton, J. L. (2018). Taste at first (person) sight: visual perspective modulates brain activity implicitly associated with viewing unhealthy but not healthy foods. Appetite, 128, 242–254. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Brand, J., & Wansink, B. (2016). Depicted versus stated serving sizes: exaggerated servings on packaging encourage overeating. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 48(7), S91. CrossRef Brand, J., & Wansink, B. (2016). Depicted versus stated serving sizes: exaggerated servings on packaging encourage overeating. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 48(7), S91. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Brunstrom, J. M., & Shakeshaft, N. G. (2009). Measuring affective (liking) and non-affective (expected satiety) determinants of portion size and food reward. Appetite, 52(1), 108–114. CrossRef Brunstrom, J. M., & Shakeshaft, N. G. (2009). Measuring affective (liking) and non-affective (expected satiety) determinants of portion size and food reward. Appetite, 52(1), 108–114. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Cornil, Y., & Chandon, P. (2016). Pleasure as a substitute for size: how multisensory imagery can make people happier with smaller food portions. Journal of Marketing Research, 53(5), 847–864. CrossRef Cornil, Y., & Chandon, P. (2016). Pleasure as a substitute for size: how multisensory imagery can make people happier with smaller food portions. Journal of Marketing Research, 53(5), 847–864. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Delboeuf, F. J. (1865). Note sur certaines illusions d’optique: essai d’une théorie psychophysique de la manière dont l’œil apprécie les distances et les angles [Note on certain optical illusions: essay on a psychophysical theory concerning the way in which the eye evaluates distances and angles]. Bulletins de l’Académie Royale des Sciences, Lettres et Beaux-arts de Belgique, 19, 2nd ser., pp 195–216. Delboeuf, F. J. (1865). Note sur certaines illusions d’optique: essai d’une théorie psychophysique de la manière dont l’œil apprécie les distances et les angles [Note on certain optical illusions: essay on a psychophysical theory concerning the way in which the eye evaluates distances and angles]. Bulletins de l’Académie Royale des Sciences, Lettres et Beaux-arts de Belgique, 19, 2nd ser., pp 195–216.
Zurück zum Zitat Elder, R. S., & Krishna, A. (2012). The “visual depiction effect” in advertising: facilitating embodied mental simulation through product orientation. Journal of Consumer Research, 38(6), 988–1003. CrossRef Elder, R. S., & Krishna, A. (2012). The “visual depiction effect” in advertising: facilitating embodied mental simulation through product orientation. Journal of Consumer Research, 38(6), 988–1003. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Franz, V. H., Gegenfurtner, K. R., Bülthoff, H. H., & Fahle, M. (2000). Grasping visual illusions: no evidence for a dissociation between perception and action. Psychological Science, 11(1), 20–25. CrossRef Franz, V. H., Gegenfurtner, K. R., Bülthoff, H. H., & Fahle, M. (2000). Grasping visual illusions: no evidence for a dissociation between perception and action. Psychological Science, 11(1), 20–25. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Guthrie, J., Mancino, L., & Lin, C. T. J. (2015). Nudging consumers toward better food choices: policy approaches to changing food consumption behaviors. Psychology and Marketing, 32(5), 501–511. CrossRef Guthrie, J., Mancino, L., & Lin, C. T. J. (2015). Nudging consumers toward better food choices: policy approaches to changing food consumption behaviors. Psychology and Marketing, 32(5), 501–511. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Holden, S. S., Zlatevska, N., & Dubelaar, C. (2016). Whether smaller plates reduce consumption depends on who’s serving and who’s looking: a meta-analysis. Journal of the Association for Consumer Research, 1(1), 134–146. CrossRef Holden, S. S., Zlatevska, N., & Dubelaar, C. (2016). Whether smaller plates reduce consumption depends on who’s serving and who’s looking: a meta-analysis. Journal of the Association for Consumer Research, 1(1), 134–146. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Labbe, D., Rytz, A., Godinot, N., Ferrage, A., & Martin, N. (2017). Is portion size selection associated with expected satiation, perceived healthfulness or expected tastiness? A case study on pizza using a photograph-based computer task. Appetite, 108, 311–316. CrossRef Labbe, D., Rytz, A., Godinot, N., Ferrage, A., & Martin, N. (2017). Is portion size selection associated with expected satiation, perceived healthfulness or expected tastiness? A case study on pizza using a photograph-based computer task. Appetite, 108, 311–316. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Madzharov, A. V., & Block, L. G. (2010). Effects of product unit image on consumption of snack foods. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 20(4), 398–409. CrossRef Madzharov, A. V., & Block, L. G. (2010). Effects of product unit image on consumption of snack foods. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 20(4), 398–409. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat McClain, A. D., van den Bos, W., Matheson, D., Desai, M., McClure, S. M., & Robinson, T. N. (2014). Visual illusions and plate design: the effects of plate rim widths and rim coloring on perceived food portion size. International Journal of Obesity, 38(5), 657–662. CrossRef McClain, A. D., van den Bos, W., Matheson, D., Desai, M., McClure, S. M., & Robinson, T. N. (2014). Visual illusions and plate design: the effects of plate rim widths and rim coloring on perceived food portion size. International Journal of Obesity, 38(5), 657–662. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Papies, E. K. (2013). Tempting food words activate eating simulations. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 838. CrossRef Papies, E. K. (2013). Tempting food words activate eating simulations. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 838. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Peng, M., Adam, S., Hautus, M. J., Shin, M., Duizer, L. M., & Yan, H. (2017). See food diet? Cultural differences in estimating fullness and intake as a function of plate size. Appetite, 117, 197–202. CrossRef Peng, M., Adam, S., Hautus, M. J., Shin, M., Duizer, L. M., & Yan, H. (2017). See food diet? Cultural differences in estimating fullness and intake as a function of plate size. Appetite, 117, 197–202. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Petit, O., Basso, F., Merunka, D., Spence, C., Cheok, A. D., & Oullier, O. (2016a). Pleasure and the control of food intake: an embodied cognition approach to consumer self-regulation. Psychology and Marketing, 33(8), 608–619. CrossRef Petit, O., Basso, F., Merunka, D., Spence, C., Cheok, A. D., & Oullier, O. (2016a). Pleasure and the control of food intake: an embodied cognition approach to consumer self-regulation. Psychology and Marketing, 33(8), 608–619. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Petit, O., Merunka, D., Anton, J.-L., Nazarian, B., Spence, C., Cheok, A. D., Raccah, D., & Oullier, O. (2016b). Health and pleasure in consumers’ dietary food choices: individual differences in the brain’s value system. PLoS One, 11(7), e0156333. CrossRef Petit, O., Merunka, D., Anton, J.-L., Nazarian, B., Spence, C., Cheok, A. D., Raccah, D., & Oullier, O. (2016b). Health and pleasure in consumers’ dietary food choices: individual differences in the brain’s value system. PLoS One, 11(7), e0156333. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Petit, O., Spence, C., Velasco, C., Woods, A. T., & Cheok, A. D. (2017). Changing the influence of portion size on consumer behavior via imagined consumption. Journal of Business Research, 75, 240–248. CrossRef Petit, O., Spence, C., Velasco, C., Woods, A. T., & Cheok, A. D. (2017). Changing the influence of portion size on consumer behavior via imagined consumption. Journal of Business Research, 75, 240–248. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Robinson, E., Nolan, S., Tudur-Smith, C., Boyland, E. J., Harrold, J. A., Hardman, C. A., & Halford, J. C. (2014). Will smaller plates lead to smaller waists? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect that experimental manipulation of dishware size has on energy consumption. Obesity Reviews, 15(10), 812–821. CrossRef Robinson, E., Nolan, S., Tudur-Smith, C., Boyland, E. J., Harrold, J. A., Hardman, C. A., & Halford, J. C. (2014). Will smaller plates lead to smaller waists? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect that experimental manipulation of dishware size has on energy consumption. Obesity Reviews, 15(10), 812–821. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Sawada, R., Sato, W., Toichi, M., & Fushiki, T. (2017). Fat content modulates rapid detection of food: a visual search study using fast food and Japanese diet. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1033. CrossRef Sawada, R., Sato, W., Toichi, M., & Fushiki, T. (2017). Fat content modulates rapid detection of food: a visual search study using fast food and Japanese diet. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1033. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Spence, C., Okajima, K., Cheok, A. D., Petit, O., & Michel, C. (2016). Eating with our eyes: from visual hunger to digital satiation. Brain and Cognition, 110, 53–63. CrossRef Spence, C., Okajima, K., Cheok, A. D., Petit, O., & Michel, C. (2016). Eating with our eyes: from visual hunger to digital satiation. Brain and Cognition, 110, 53–63. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Tal, A., Niemann, S., & Wansink, B. (2017). Depicted serving size: cereal packaging pictures exaggerate serving sizes and promote overserving. BMC Public Health, 17(1), 169. CrossRef Tal, A., Niemann, S., & Wansink, B. (2017). Depicted serving size: cereal packaging pictures exaggerate serving sizes and promote overserving. BMC Public Health, 17(1), 169. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Thaler, R. H., & Sunstein, C. (2008). Nudge: improving decisions about health, wealth and happiness. London: Penguin Books. Thaler, R. H., & Sunstein, C. (2008). Nudge: improving decisions about health, wealth and happiness. London: Penguin Books.
Zurück zum Zitat Toepel, U., Bielser, M. L., Forde, C., Martin, N., Voirin, A., le Coutre, J., Murray, M. M., & Hudry, J. (2015). Brain dynamics of meal size selection in humans. NeuroImage, 113, 133–142. CrossRef Toepel, U., Bielser, M. L., Forde, C., Martin, N., Voirin, A., le Coutre, J., Murray, M. M., & Hudry, J. (2015). Brain dynamics of meal size selection in humans. NeuroImage, 113, 133–142. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Van der Laan, L. N., De Ridder, D. T. D., Viergever, M. A., & Smeets, P. A. (2011). The first taste is always with the eyes: a meta-analysis on the neural correlates of processing visual food cues. NeuroImage, 55(1), 296–303. CrossRef Van der Laan, L. N., De Ridder, D. T. D., Viergever, M. A., & Smeets, P. A. (2011). The first taste is always with the eyes: a meta-analysis on the neural correlates of processing visual food cues. NeuroImage, 55(1), 296–303. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Van Ittersum, K., & Wansink, B. (2012). Plate size and color suggestibility: the Delboeuf Illusion’s bias on serving and eating behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 39(2), 215–228. CrossRef Van Ittersum, K., & Wansink, B. (2012). Plate size and color suggestibility: the Delboeuf Illusion’s bias on serving and eating behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 39(2), 215–228. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Velasco, C., & Spence, C. (Eds.). (2019). Multisensory packaging: designing new product experiences. Cham: Palgrave MacMillan. Velasco, C., & Spence, C. (Eds.). (2019). Multisensory packaging: designing new product experiences. Cham: Palgrave MacMillan.
Zurück zum Zitat Versluis, I., & Papies, E. K. (2016). The role of social norms in the portion size effect: reducing normative relevance reduces the effect of portion size on consumption decisions. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 756. CrossRef Versluis, I., & Papies, E. K. (2016). The role of social norms in the portion size effect: reducing normative relevance reduces the effect of portion size on consumption decisions. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 756. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Wansink, B., Painter, J. E., & North, J. (2005). Bottomless bowls: why visual cues of portion size may influence intake. Obesity Research, 13(1), 93–100. CrossRef Wansink, B., Painter, J. E., & North, J. (2005). Bottomless bowls: why visual cues of portion size may influence intake. Obesity Research, 13(1), 93–100. CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Xie, H., Minton, E. A., & Kahle, L. R. (2016). Cake or fruit? Influencing healthy food choice through the interaction of automatic and instructed mental simulation. Marketing Letters, 27(4), 627–644. CrossRef Xie, H., Minton, E. A., & Kahle, L. R. (2016). Cake or fruit? Influencing healthy food choice through the interaction of automatic and instructed mental simulation. Marketing Letters, 27(4), 627–644. CrossRef
Metadaten
Titel
Are large portions always bad? Using the Delboeuf illusion on food packaging to nudge consumer behavior
verfasst von
Olivia Petit
Carlos Velasco
Charles Spence
Publikationsdatum
01.12.2018
Verlag
Springer US
Erschienen in
Marketing Letters / Ausgabe 4/2018
Print ISSN: 0923-0645
Elektronische ISSN: 1573-059X
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11002-018-9473-6

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 4/2018

Marketing Letters 4/2018 Zur Ausgabe