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Über dieses Buch

This book provides a comprehensive introduction to all aspects of enzyme engineering, from fundamental principles through to the state-of-the-art in research and industrial applications.

It begins with a brief history, describing the milestones of advancement in enzyme science and technology, before going on to cover the fundamentals of enzyme chemistry, the biosynthesis of enzymes and their production. Enzyme stability and the reaction kinetics during enzymatic reactions are presented to show how enzymes function during catalysis and the factors that affect their activity. Methods to improve enzyme performance are also presented, such as cofactor regeneration and enzyme immobilization. The book emphasizes and elaborates on the performance and characteristics of enzymes at the molecular level. Finally, the book presents recent advances in enzyme engineering and some key industrial application of enzymes addressing the present needs of society.

This book presents essential information not only for undergraduate and graduate students, but also for researchers in academia and industry, providing a valuable reference for the development of commercial applications of enzyme technology.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Introduction to Enzyme Engineering

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

The microorganisms were widely used among ancient people. The manufacture of cheeses, breads, alcoholic beverages, and many other applications depends upon microorganisms which were found from ancient text of Babylon, Greece, Egypt, China, and India.
Young Je Yoo, Yan Feng, Yong Hwan Kim, Camila Flor J. Yagonia

Chapter 2. Biosynthesis of Enzymes

The central carbon atom covalently bonded by amino, carboxyl, and R group in the structure is called the alpha carbon (Cα). The side chain R group varies in chemical composition, size, and interaction with water as reflected in their polarity. There are 20 standard amino acids used as common building blocks for peptides and proteins.
Young Je Yoo, Yan Feng, Yong Hwan Kim, Camila Flor J. Yagonia

Chapter 3. Production of Enzymes

The first step in enzyme production is the selection of the enzyme source. Enzymes can be derived from microorganisms through fermentation processes, as well as plant and animal sources. Table 3.1 presents industrially important enzymes and their sources.
Young Je Yoo, Yan Feng, Yong Hwan Kim, Camila Flor J. Yagonia

Enzyme Reaction Engineering

Frontmatter

Chapter 4. Enzyme Reaction Kinetics

Since enzyme reaction, in many cases, follows first-order kinetics at low substrate concentration, and zero-order kinetics at high substrate concentration, simple enzyme reaction mechanism was suggested. During the course of enzyme, enzymes form a complex with the substrate. The mechanism is called as Michaelis–Menten kinetics for one-substrate reaction.
Young Je Yoo, Yan Feng, Yong Hwan Kim, Camila Flor J. Yagonia

Chapter 5. Regeneration of Cofactors

Enzymes such as oxidoreductases and transferases are able to catalyze industrially useful reactions. However, these enzymes are often cofactor dependent. Cofactors are relatively low molecular weight compounds that are required for the enzymatic reactions.
Young Je Yoo, Yan Feng, Yong Hwan Kim, Camila Flor J. Yagonia

Chapter 6. Immobilized Enzyme

One of the factors that hinders the use of enzyme for industrial processes is their cost. Since enzymes are catalyst, they are not consumed during reactions. If enzymes are used as free form, they should be recovered after the reaction for reuses. The remaining enzymes might also contaminate the product if it is not separated during purification steps.
Young Je Yoo, Yan Feng, Yong Hwan Kim, Camila Flor J. Yagonia

Chapter 7. Enzymes in Non-conventional Media

Traditionally enzyme reactions have been in many cases performed in aqueous buffer systems. Since the environments inside the cells are rather hydrophilic in some part and hydrophobic in other part of the cells, enzyme reactions can be also performed in hydrophobic condition. Historically, organic solvent was used for steroid bioconversion. Since solubilities of substrate and product steroids are very low in water, they can be solubilized using organic solvent system.
Young Je Yoo, Yan Feng, Yong Hwan Kim, Camila Flor J. Yagonia

Molecular Understanding of Enzymes

Frontmatter

Chapter 8. Engineering Tools for Enzymes

Since new millennia, application of industrial enzymes in manufacturing process including pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals, bio-based chemicals remarkably gained much attention. There is a fundamental limitation to apply industrial enzymes since enzymes have not been evolved to meet the requirements as biocatalysts.
Young Je Yoo, Yan Feng, Yong Hwan Kim, Camila Flor J. Yagonia

Chapter 9. Enzyme Catalysis

Enzymes catalyze efficiently various reactions with astounding rates. Understanding the dynamics and molecular mechanism of enzymes has been an important research goal for more than half a century.
Young Je Yoo, Yan Feng, Yong Hwan Kim, Camila Flor J. Yagonia

Chapter 10. Specificity of Enzymes

The enzymatic reaction starts with the binding of the substrate to the enzyme. When the substrate approaches to the active site of enzyme, the electrostatic microenvironment in the substrate-binding region changes to make the reaction proceeds to form the final products.
Young Je Yoo, Yan Feng, Yong Hwan Kim, Camila Flor J. Yagonia

Chapter 11. Thermodynamics and Stability

There are many advantages of enzymes such as substrate specificity , mild reaction conditions. However, there are also disadvantages such as high cost and instability of enzymes which give limitation for commercial applications.
Young Je Yoo, Yan Feng, Yong Hwan Kim, Camila Flor J. Yagonia

Applications of Enzymes

Frontmatter

Chapter 12. Enzymes for Chemicals and Polymers

Isolated enzymes have been used as highly specific catalyst in organic chemicals synthesis. However, industrial significance of enzyme reactions was especially emphasized in the 1970s with the production of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) . Recombinant DNA technology also enables the efficient production of enzymes, making them cheaply available for use.
Young Je Yoo, Yan Feng, Yong Hwan Kim, Camila Flor J. Yagonia

Chapter 13. Enzymes for Food and Energy

Enzymes exist very widely in natural and processed foods. Industrial production of enzyme used for food processing since 1874, when Christian Hansen, a Danish scientist, obtained rennin (a kind of protease ) from calves’ stomachs to apply for cheese preparation (Nielsen et al. 1994). Currently, many enzymes commonly consumed in food industry are originated from recombinant microbials.
Young Je Yoo, Yan Feng, Yong Hwan Kim, Camila Flor J. Yagonia

Chapter 14. Enzymes for Biosensors

A biosensor is defined by the National Research Council of the USA as a detection device that incorporates (1) a living organism or product derived from living systems (e.g., an enzyme or an antibody) and (2) a transducer to provide an indication, signal, or other form of recognition of the presence of a specific substance in the environment. Biosensors must be able to detect molecules of analytical significance fast, accurately and reliably.
Young Je Yoo, Yan Feng, Yong Hwan Kim, Camila Flor J. Yagonia

Chapter 15. Enzymes for Environment

Strict regulations on the disposal of wastes to the environment require improvement of waste treatment processes. In recent years, extensive research on biological processes has been conducted to enable industrial, agricultural, municipal, and commercial facilities to reduce their harmful impacts on the environment. Biological processes such as activated sludge process are the most economical method when treating broad range of compounds in aqueous solution.
Young Je Yoo, Yan Feng, Yong Hwan Kim, Camila Flor J. Yagonia

Backmatter

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